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overall funtion
hydrolysis- breakdown of water
polymers  to monomers
dehydration
synthesis- comes together
organs
-oral cavity
-pharynx
-esophagus
-stomach
-small intestine
-large intestine
digestive system functions
-ingestion
-digestion
-propulsion
-secretion
-absorbtion
-elimination of wastes
amylase
starts breakdown of carbohydrates, starch and sugar
palate
the soft palate and the uvula elevate to close off the opening of the nasopharynx
tongue
helps move food around
an accessory digestive organ
helps compress food
salivary glands
three pairs of large multicelluar salivary glands
produce and secrete saliva
1parotid glands
largest salivary glands
near the ear
2 submandibular glands
inferior to the body of the mandible
produce most of the saliva
3 sublingual glands
inferior to the tounge
under the tounge
functions of saliva
makes easier to swallow
protective mechanism
teeth
chewing=mastication increases surface area
pharynx
throat5 inches long
3 parts
-nasopharynx
-oropharynx
-laryngopharynx
peritoneum and extensions
greater omentun
lesser omentum
falciform ligament
round ligament
mesentery
mesocolon
parietal peritoneum
visceral peritonieum
4 layers from esophagus through large intestine
-the mucosa keeps things moving
-the submucosa
-the muscularis
-the adventita or serosa
stomach
rugae= deeps folds in mucoa and submucosa
breaks down bolus into chyme
proteing digestion begins with pepsin
stomach secretes HCI
stomachs protected by
mucus
tight junctions
rapid turnover
pepsinogem is inactive until activated by HCI
small intestine
finishes the chemical digestion process and is responsible for absorbing most of the nutrients and most of the water
almost all digestion and absorbtion occur here.
small intestine cont.
1.duodenum is retroperitoneal-originates at the pyloric sphincter
2.jejunum primary region chemical digestion and nutrient absorbtion
3.ileum terminates at the ileocecal valve a sphincter that comtrols the entry of materials into the large intestine
two layers to the muscularis
serosa suuounds except for pajor part of the duodenum
4 segments of the large intestine
1.cecum 2. colon 3.rectum 4.anal canal
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