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cells of the nervous system include
supporting cells and neurons
nervous system supporting cells are varied (many kinds), but are also called ___ cells or ___
Glial cells or Neuroglia (nuro-glia)
supporting cells can or cannot produce nerve impulses?
Cannot produce nerve impulses
supporting cells are much more or much less numerous than neurons
much more numerous (greatly outnumber)
glial cells are capable of cell division (true or false)
True - most brain tumors involve excessive proliferation of glial cells (aka - gliomas)
Neurons/Nerve cells conduct electrical signals called ___ ___ or ___ ___
nerve impulses or action potentials
how many neurons in the brain?
Billions!
neurons have extreme ____ .
Longevity. They can live as long as a person lives.
Fully differentiated/Fully mature neurons are not capable of mitosis. T or F
True
Neurons have a ___ metabolic rate and require continuous and abundant supplies of ___ and ___
HIGH metabolic rate requiring Rateglucose and Oxygen
cell body (Soma)
large part of the neuron that contains the nucleus
dendrites
numerous, branched processes (extensions)that function as receptive sites - sending the incoming signals toward the cell body.
axon
large singular extension from the cell body via the axon hillock transmits away from cell body and toward the dendrite of another neuron, cell body, muscle cell of gland cell
a long axon is often called a ____ _____.
nerve fiber
structural support of axons is provided by ____-____ ____
protein-composed microtubules
microtubules in the axons also aid in the transport of beneficial substances to the from the cell body, a movement called ____ _____.
axonal transport.
some viruses use axonal transport to move up and down the length of neurons mainly the ___ virus and ____ ____.
Rabies virus and Herpes Zoster (chicken pox and shingles)
Do larger diameter axons conduct impulses faster or slower than those with smaller diameters?
FASTER
Study
study study study
dendrite, soma, nucleus, axon, myelin sheath, schwann cell, node of ranvier, axon terminal
located in Diancephalon region of brain, below thalmus and above pituitary gland - contains about a dozen nuclei
Hypothalmus
directs activity of the Autonomic Nervous System
Hypothalmus
system that regulates cardiac muscle and glands, thereby controlling heart rate, bp, digestive activity and other visceral motor activities
Autonomic Nervous System
Regulates body temp., water balance and metabolism
Hypothalmus
helps regulate emotions & "drives" such as thirst, hunger, pleasure, sex and sleep/wake cycles
Hypothalmus
The ___ ____ in the Hypothalmus regulates the endocrine system
Pituitary Gland
The Pituitary Gland hangs from the floor of the Hypothalmus but a slender stalk called the ___.
Infundibulum
Clusters of Nerve cells in the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Ganglia (singular is Ganglion)
Bundle of nerve fibers/axons in CNS - tend to be myelinated thus are white
a "Tract"
bundle of nerve fibers/axons in PNS tend to be myelinated, thus are white
"a Nerve"
Portion of CNS lacking myelin - largely are neuron cell bodies.
Gray Matter
Portion of CNS contiaining myelin, largely bundles of myelinated fibers or Tracts.
White Matter
Made up of Brain and Spinal cord
The Central Nervous System.
Parts of brain stem (superior to inferior)
midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
Midbrain contains __ __ crucial to the production of ___.
Substantia Nigra Dopamine.
Separates Frontal from Parietal Lobe, slightly dorsal to mid coronal.
Central Sulcus
Separates temporal from Frontal and Parietal.
Lateral Sulcus
Ridge immediately in front central sulcus - posterior part of frontal lobe
precentral Gyrus
ridge immediately posterior to central sulcus, anterior part of parietal lobe.
post central gyrus
the outer layer of gray matter(only 1/8th" thick and home of the "conscious mind"
cerebral cortex
located along the post central gyrus, receives info. regarding general somatic senses (touch, pain, temp., vibration and proprioreception (balance).
Primary somatosensory cortex
related to sight, this brain cortex is locatedin the occipital lobe
primary visual cortex
related to hearing, this brain cortex is located in the temporal lobe
primary auditory cortex
much of the frontal lobe, association area, thinking, understanding, intentionally remembering and recalling info., reasoning, judgement, abstract thought, problem solving, social skills, sense of humor, emotions, empathy and conscience
Pre frontal cortex
Left cerebral hemisphere: Language, math skills and logic
Right cerebral Hemisphere: emotions / artistic and musical skills.
4 major regions of the brain
cerebrum, diencephalons, brain stem, cerebellum
left and right portions of cerebrum are called __ __
cerebral hemispheres
name for ridges of surface of cerebral hemispheres
Gyri (pl.) Gyrus (sing.)
grooves on surface of cerebrum are called ___ and ___.
sulci (pl.) Sulcus (sing.) and fissures
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