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Which substances are most commonly prescribed or categorized as controlled substances?
Narcotics, and some sedatives or tranquilizers that can only be ordered by someone with a special license
What is a severe form of allergic reaction that is life threatening. The patient develops severe shortness of breath, may stop breathing, or may have cardiac collapse.
Anaphylactic Response
What is the reason that drugs may fall within the 5 major categories of control?
Potential for abuse or addiction
What are the four basic processes involved in drug utilization in the body?
absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion.
1 cup = how many mL?
240 mL
What is OU?
oculi uterque (both eyes)
What type of drug name is often followed by the symbol ®, which indicates that the name is registered to a specific drug maker or owner and no one else can use it?
Trade name
A now order is different than a stat order in that the nurse has how much time to give the medication?
1.5 hours
What are severe symptoms or problems that arise because of the medication. An example would be that the patient might develop severe gastric bleeding from an ulcer caused by aspirin.
Adverse Reaction
Under the Controlled Substance Schedule which schedule contains drugs that have an abuse potential that may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychologic dependence.Examples: glutethimide, aspirin with codeine (Empirin with codeine), aspirin with butalbital and caffeine (Fiorinal), methyprylon, paregoric, acetaminophen with codeine (Tylenol with Codeine)?
Schedule 3
The LPN is administering oxycodone (Percocet), which has abuse potential that may lead to severe psychologic or physical dependence. The LPN recognizes that this drug is classified as belonging to schedule: A. II B. III C. III D. 1V
A is correct. Oxycodone (Percocet) is classified as a schedule II medication.
What/Whom is responsible for writing the prescription?
Physicians, dentists, and, in some states, nurse practitioners, nurse midwives, nurse anesthetists, and physician assistants.
What word defines the use of drugs in the treatment of disease?
Pharmacotherapeutics
Under which schedule would the following drugs be classified? Examples: hashish, heroin, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), marijuana, peyote, 2,5-demethoxy-4-methamphetamine (STP).
Schedule 1
If the effect of two drugs taken at the same time is greater than the sum of the effects of each drug given alone, the drugs have what type of an effect? This is often seen when individuals are exposed to pollutants and toxins.
Synergistic effect
What/Whom is responsible for the functions of administering drugs?
The authority to administer medications is clearly specified for LPNs/LVNs, RNs, and nurse practitioners in the state nurse practice act.
What is the way a drug enters the body and passes into the body fluids and tissues?
Absorption
What/Whom is responsible for the function of dispensing drugs?
The pharmacy or there are automated medication dispensing systems. They include narcotics plus also stock medicines that nurses withdraw by password or fingerprint instead of a key system. One such system is the Pyxis® MedStation™ 3500 system.
1 tablesoon = how many mL?
15 mL
What is the protocol where patients bring their medications to the hospital?
A physician\'s order is required before any medication may be given in the hospital. Without an order, hospitalized patients cannot take even their own OTC medicines brought along to the hospital. This policy is necessary for safety reasons. Patients have been found to take their own medicines in addition to those medicines given by hospital staff. This can result in an overdose of medicine.
A patient has been taking penicillin for 7 days when hives and life-threatening breathing difficulties develop. This drug action is known as a(n): A. idiosyncratic reaction. B. anaphylactic reaction. C. side effect D. desired action.
B is correct. An anaphylactic reaction is a life-threatening allergic response to a medication.
What are drugs that attach at receptor site and activate the receptor; the drug has an action similar to the body\'s own chemicals, and the chemical response is usually good.
Agonists
Select the patient who would be most likely to rely on a pharmacist for medical information. A. A 48-year-old female who has specific questions and is not easily satisfied B. A 22-year-old male who is a recent college graduate and is computer literate C. A 55-year-old female who has an eighth-grade literacy level and is an obese diabetic D. A 72-year-old male who does not always take his medication for hypertension
B is correct. This is the patient who would be most likely to rely on a pharmacist for information. A is incorrect. This patient would be more likely to be considered a \"questioner.\" C and D are incorrect. These patients would be more likely to be classified as \"uninformed.\"
The physician tells a parent that Tylenol and Motrin should be given 2 hours apart because they compete for the same receptor site and reduce the optimal effect of each other. Later, the parent asks the LPN what the physician meant. The LPN recognizes that the effect the physician is describing is a(n): A. agonistic effect. B. antagonistic effect. C. idiosyncratic effect. D. anaphylactic effect.
B is correct. Drugs that attach to receptor sites but produce no chemical reaction are called antagonists. When Tylenol and Motrin compete for the same receptor sites, neither produce an optimal effect in the body. A is incorrect. Agonists are drugs that fit the receptor site and generally produce an effective chemical response. Both Tylenol and Motrin are agonists when not given at the same time. C is incorrect. Idiosyncratic effects are strange, unique, or unpredicted responses produced by a drug in the body. These responses are rare. D is incorrect. An anaphylactic reaction is a life-threatening allergic response caused by a medication.
What refers to anxiety, stress, or tension that is felt if the patient does not have the medication?
Psychologic dependence
What refers to the ways that drugs move by means of circulating body fluids to their sites of action in the body?
Distribution
What type of drug name are usually long and hyphenated, and they describe the atomic or molecular structure?
Chemical name
Who owns the patient\'s chart?
The chart belongs to the hospital. It is not the property of the patient, the nurse, or the physician. It is the legal record of the patient\'s stay in the hospital.
Under which schedule would the following drugs be classified? Examples: amphetamines, meperidine, methadone, methaqualone, morphine, pentobarbital, oxycodone (Percocet), secobarbital.
Schedule 2
Select the patient who would be at highest risk for problems with prescription drugs. A. A 28-year-old female who is seven months pregnant B. A 74-year-old female who wears corrective lenses C. A 54-year-old male who has a history of depression D. A 48-year-old female who is experiencing menopause
B is correct. This patient would be considered to be at highest risk for problems with prescription drugs because of her age and her vision problems. A, C, and D are incorrect. These patients would not be considered to be at high risk to experience problems with prescription drugs.
A patient has been instructed to avoid alcohol while taking sedatives. If these are taken together, the effects of both are greater than the sum of each taken alone. This reaction is known as a(n): A. bioequivalence. B. antagonistic effect. C. interference. D. synergistic effect.
D is correct. Synergistic effects occur when two drugs taken together have a greater effect than the sum of each drug given alone. A is incorrect. Bioequivalence is the term used to describe drug products that are identical but have different names. B is incorrect. Antagonistic effects occur when a drug interferes with the action of another drug. C is incorrect. Interference is seen when one drug promotes the rapid excretion of another drug, thus reducing its activity
What word defines what the body does to the drug?
Pharmacokinetics
Under which schedule would the following drugs be classified? Examples: glutethimide, aspirin with codeine (Empirin with codeine), aspirin with butalbital and caffeine (Fiorinal), methyprylon, paregoric, acetaminophen with codeine (Tylenol with Codeine).
Schedule 3
The LPN is counting controlled substances with the nurse from the oncoming shift. The inventory and the report do not agree. Which intervention should the LPN implement first? A. Contact the hospital administrator and the security police. B. Ask all nurses having access to the key about medication they have given. C. Discuss the situation with the pharmacy and the nursing service office. D. Contact the physician for the patient\'s whose medication is in questionD. Contact the physician for the patient\'s whose medication is in question
B is correct The most appropriate first intervention would be to question all nurses having access to the controlled substance cabinet about medication administered.
The federal law that classifies the degree of control and record keeping required for each of the five classes of controlled substances is the: A. Harrison Narcotic Act of 1914. B. Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938. C. Controlled Substances Act of 1970. D. Kefauver-Harris Act of 1962.
C is correct. The Controlled Substances Act of 1970 classified controlled substances into five classes (schedules) and outlined the degree of control, record keeping, order forms, and rules and regulations required for each of the five classes.
What takes place when the therapeutic goal is achieved.? The drug does what it is supposed to do. An example would be temperature reduction after taking aspirin.
Desired Effect
What is the tendency of the molecules of a substance (gas, liquid, or solid) to move from a region of high concentration to one of lower concentration?
Diffusion
Research suggests that patients tend to seek information regarding their medications and treatment from: A. health care professionals with the highest degree B. a computerized website. C. people with whom they are most comfortable. D. written instructions sent home.
C is correct. Research has suggested that patients go to the person with whom they feel most comfortable for information.
What are the Patient Variables Influencing Drug Actions:
Body weight, age, illness, pregnancy and breast-feeding, genetics, cumulative drug effects, individual psychology and dependence
What is the ordering procedure?
1. Physician orders medication 2. Orders transcribed onto Kardex 3. Nurser verifies accuracy of order and transcription 4. Order is sent to Pharmacy 5. Medication is dispensed to floor 6. Nurse administers according to guidelines
What was created by Congress to watch over the testing, approval, and marketing of new drugs?
Congress created the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
What is the protocol where a controlled substance is spilled or accidentally contaminateed?
Two nurses must sign the inventory report and describe the situation.
Under the Controlled Substance Schedule which schedule contains drugs which have no currently accepted medical use in the United States. Lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision.Examples: hashish, heroin, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), marijuana, peyote?
Schedule 1
What is the diffusion of fluid through a semipermeable membrane; the flow is primarily from the less dense solution to the more dense solution?
Osmosis
What components must a medication order have?
The patient\'s full name, date, name of drug, route of administration, dose, frequency, duration, and signature of prescriber. Additional details about how to give the drug may also be written: “Take with meals,” “Avoid milk products with this drug,” “Do not refill,” “Please label.”
What type of medication order is a one-time order to be given immediately?
STAT Order
What are reactions that are the opposite of what would be expected?
Paradoxical Reaction
How many gtt are in a mL?
15 gtts
The LPN recognizes that an illiterate older adult patient has a higher risk for illness and disease. The term that best describes this phenomenon is: A. health literacy. B. health disparity. C. compliance. D. noncompliance.
B is correct. Patients with low literacy skills often have poor health outcomes. The inability to read and write decreases the ability to carry out a medical treatment plan, thus increasing the risk for disease and disability. The definition of this phenomenon is health disparity.
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