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Gluteal region
the buttock; extends from post. iliac crest to gluteal fold
hip region (coxal) region
antolateral from inguinal lig. to inf. extent of the hip joint
thigh (femoral) region
from inf. pelvis to the knee; ant., post., and medial regions
knee (genus) region
b/w thigh and leg regions; has ant. and post. regions
leg (crus) region
from knee to ankle; ant., post, and lat. regions
Calf (sural) region
rounded (shapely) part of the proximal post. leg region
ankle (talus) region
b/w the leg and foot; incl. the med. and lat. malleoli
foot (pes) region
a. Dorsal region - sup. part or dorsum of foot

b. Plantar region - inf. part or planta of foot; divided into med., lat., and central regions

c. Calcaneal region - the heel; med., lat, and plantarly
Ant. (ventral) surface
the front side of a part (except the foot)
Post. (dorsal) surface
back side of a part (except the foot)
medial suface
inner side of a part (toward midline)
lateral surface
outer side of a part (away from the midline)
flexor surface
surface over the flexor muscles

ex. flexor surface of the leg is the post. surface of the leg
extensor surface
the surface over the extensors

ex. flexor surface of the leg is ant. surface of the leg
adductor surface
surface over adductor m.''s

ex. adductor surface of the thigh is the medial surface
abductor surface
over the abductor m.''s

ex. abductor surface of thigh is lateral surface
patellar surface
the ant. surface of the knee region, over the patella
popliteal surface
post. surface of the knee
Med. Malleolar surface
surface over the med. malleolus of the tibia @ the ankle region
Lat. malleolar surface
surface of the lat. malleolus of the fibula @ the ankle region
dorsal surface of foot
sup. surface (dorsum) of foot
plantar surface of foot
inf. surface (sole or planta) of foot
anatomical position
standing erect w/ toes and palms facing anterior
relaxed standing
torso slightly slouched, toes directed slightly laterally, palms facing medially
superior (cephalic / cranial)
toward the head
inferior (caudal)
away from the head
between 2 structures
on the same side of the body; most often used for neurology
opposite side of body; often used for neurology
closer to the origin/main structure
further away from the origin/main structure
decreasing the angle b/w body parts; usually an anterior direction except @ knee & more distal joints
increasing the angle b/w body parts; usually posterior, except @ knee and more distal joints
extension beyond anatomical position
moving away from body's midline
moving toward the body midline
moving around the long axis of a part

Med. rotation: ant. surface of the part moves toward body midline

Lat. rotation: ant. surface of part moves away from body midline
movement of a part in circular pattern; combines flexion and extension w/ abduction and adduction
moving the sole of foot away from body midline
moving sole of foot toward body midline
extension of ankle joint or joints distal to the ankle joint
plantar flexion
flexion of the ankle joint or joints distal to the ankle joint
supination (of lower limbs)
combination of plantar flexion, adduction, and inversion of the foot; motion occurs @ functional subtalar joint and the midtarsal joint
pronation (of the lower limbs)
combination of dorsiflexion, abduction, and eversion of the foot; motion occurs @ the functional subtalar joint and the midtarsal joint
frontal (coronal) planes
divide the body into ant. & post. sections
transverse planes
divide the body into sup. and inf. sections
sagittal planes
divide the body into right or left sections
midsaggital (median sagittal) plane
divide into equal right and left halves
parasagittal plane
any sagital plane except at the midsagital plane
cardinal body planes
that plane which divides the body into equal parts

(cardinal sagital plane = midsagittal plane, cardinal frontal plane = equal ant. and post. halves, etc)
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