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4 main TISSUE type
I. Epithelium Tissue- covering. II. Connective Tissue- support. III. Muscle Tissue- movement. IV. Nervous Tissue- Control.
I. Epithelia: Functions
Protect underlying tissue & contain nerve ending for sensory reception. Secretion - release molecules from cell. Absorption - bring small molecules into cell. Ion Transport - moving ion across the interface. Filer body fluid. Form slipery surface - moving food.
Characteristics of Epithelia
Celluary: Specialized Contacts: Polarity: Support by Connective Tissue: Avascular but Innervated: Regeneration:
Celluary:
These cells are seperated by a minimal amount of extracellular. mainly projections of their integral membrane proteins into narrow spaces between cells.
Specialized Contacts:
Adjacent epothelial cells are directly jointed at many point by special CELL JUNCTION.
Polarity:
ALl epithelia have a fee APICAL(upper) surface & BASAL(lower) surafce. Thwy exhibit polarity -> cell region near apical surface differ from those near the basal surface.
Support by Connective Tissue:
All epithelia sheets in body are supported by an underlying layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE.
Avascular but Innervated: ( vascular - contain blood vessels) ( Avascular - lacks of blood vessels
Epithelial cells receive their nutrients from CAPILLARIES in the underlying c t. although blood vessels do not penetrate epithelial sheet, nerve ending do; <= that is, Epithelium is INNERVATED.
Regeneration:
A high regenerative capacity. As long as cell revieve adaquate nutrition, they can replace lost cell quickly bi division.
Classify the different Epithelia into 4 type in the folowing convention: #LAYERS + SHAPE.
LAYERS: Simple: single layer. Tratified: more than 1 layers. SHAPE: Squamous: Flat cell. Cuboidal: cube shape Columnar: taller. Transitional: changing shape on condition.
Squamous:
SINGLE:Diffusion & filtration, secretion in memebrane. STRTIFIED:Protection
Cuboidal:
SINGLE:Secretion & absorption; cilicated types propel mucus or reproducetive cells. STRTIFIED: protection; these tissue types are rare in human.
Columnar:
SINGLE: Secretion & absorption;cilicated types propel mucus or reproducetive cells. STRTIFIED:protection; these tissue types are rare in human.
Transitional:
SINGLE: n/a STRTIFIED:protection; stretching to accommudate dsitension of unery structures.
SIMPLE Epithelia
SIMPLE SQUAMOUS Epithelium. SIMPLE CUBOIDAL Epithelium. SIMPLE COLUMNAR Epithelium. PseudoSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR Epithelium.
SIMPLE SQUAMOUS Epithelium.
Endothilium: rpovides a slick, friction-reducing lining in the hollow argans of the circulatory system - blood vessel, the heart, & lymphatic vessel. Mesothelium: Lines the peritioneal, pleural, & pericardial cavities & cover the viseceral organs in these cavities. LOCATION: Kidney glomeruli & corposules; Air sac of lung; Lining of heart, blood vessel, & lymphatic vessels; Lining of vental body cavity(sersae)
SIMPLE CUBOIDAL Epithelium.
form the cell walls of smallest ducts of glands, & many tubules in the kidney. It function as the same as those of simple columnar epithelium. FUNCTION: Secretion & Absorption. LOCATION:Kidney tubules; ducts & secretory portion of small glands; overy surface.
SIMPLE COLUMNAR Epithelium.
FUNCTION: Absorption; secretion of mucus, enzymes, & other subtance; cilciated type propels mucus( or reproductive cell) by ciliary action. LOCATION:NonCiliated type line of the digestive tract(stomach to anal canal), Gallbladder, & excretory ducts of some glands; ciliated veriety lines small bronchi, uterine tubes, & some rgions of uterus.
PseudoSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR Epithelium.
Very in hight, all cells rest in basement membrane, only tall cell reach the apical surface. FUNCTION:Secretion or abserption. pacticular of mucus; propulsion of mucus by ciliary action. LOCATION: Noneciliated type in male's sperm-carrying ducts & ducts of large glands; cilicated variety lines the trachea, most of upper respiratory tract.
STRATIFIED Epithelia
Stratified SQUAMOUS Epithelium. Stratified CUBOIDAL & COLUMNAR Epithelium. TRANSITIONAL Epithelium.
Stratified SQUAMOUS Epithelium. (Karatinized - tough protective protein) abrasion-a wound consisting of superficial damage to the skin
FUNCTION:Protect area underlying tissues in areas subject to abrasion. LOCATION: Nonekeratinezed type forms the moist linning ot the esophagus, mouth, & vagina; Karatinzed variety forms the epidemis of hte skin, a dry membrane.
Stratified a. CUBOIDAL & b. COLUMNAR Epithelium.
FUNCTION: a. Protection b.+secretion. LOCATION: a. Largest ducts odf sweat glands, mammary glands, & salivary glands. b. Rare in the body; small amounts in male urethra & in large ducts of some glands.
TRANSITIONAL Epithelium.
FUNCTION: Stretches readily & permits distention of urinary organ by contained urine. LOCATION: Line the ureters. bladder, & part of the urethra.
Lateral Surface Feature: Cell JUNCTION. (4)
Tight Junction. Adherens Junction. Desmosomes Junction. Gap Junction.
Tight Junction. (@Zonula Occlucell)
a biltlike junction extend around the periphery of each cell. (@ belt shuts off)It close off extracellular space. Thus this junction prevent molecules from passing between the cells of epithelial tissue.
Adherens Junction. (@Zonula adherens)
Just below tigh junction , adherens junction is serve as an ANCHORING junction. This junction reiforces the tigh junction. particularly when th tissue are stretched. Together with tigh junction, they form the tight junctional complex around the apical lateral border of epithelial tissues.
Desmosomes Junction. (@Anchoring Junction or Binding body)
The main junction binding cell together or ANCHORING JUNCTION. Found in Cardiac muscle tissue as well as epithelial tissue.
Gap Junction. (@Nexus)
function as in intercellular communication by allowing small molecules move directly between neighboring cell. @ sunch junction cell are connected by hollow cylinders of protein( CONNEXONS)
Basement Membrane
Basal Lamina. Recticlar Fibers.
Epithelial Cell Suraface
Cilia: function to propel material. MicroVilli:Anchor sheets os mucus or increase surface area for obsorption. Cell Junction: 4 types. Basal Lamina:Thin sheet of protein that underlies epithelium.
GLANDS
EXOCRINE GLANDS:(External secretion) ENDOCRINE GLANDS:(Internal secretion)
EXOCRINE GLANDS:
Exocrine glands secretion is local. Unicellular Exocrine Glands. (EX: GOBLET CELL) Multicellular Exocrine Glands.
Unicellular Exocrine Glands.
Goblet cell is an example, it scattered w/i the epithelial linningof intestines & repiratory tubes, between columnar cell with other function. Produces MUCIN, a glycoprotein that disolve in water when secreted. The resulting complex of mucin a& water is viscous, slimy MUCUS.Mucus covers, protects, & lubricates many internal body surface.
Multicellular Exocrine Glands.
Has two basic parts: a. Epitheium-walled Duct. b. Secretory Unit. Muticellular glands are classified by the structure of the duct:Simple(no branch) & Compound(has branch). They are futher catagorized by secretory unit: TUBULAR & ALVEOLAR. (Fg 4.6)
ENDOCRINE GLANDS: (@ Ductless Gland)
They secrete directly into tissue fluid surrounds them rather than onto epithelial surface. Produce messenger molecule call HORMONES& release to extracellular space. These hormones then enter nearby capillaries & travel through blood stream to specific target organs.
II. Connective Tissue- (support).
CONNECTIVE TISSUE PROPER:(has 2 subclasses: Loose & dense tissue) CARTILAGE: BONE TISSUE: BLOOD:
PROPER (Connective Tissue): (has 2 subclasses: Loose & dense tissue)
Cell: FibroBlasts; Defense Cell; Fat Cell. Matrix: Gel-like ground subtance. All 3 fiber type: Collagen, reticular, elastic. Feature: 6 different types; Vary in density & type of fibers. Function as binding tissue. Resists mechanical stress, particularly tension.
CARTILAGE (Connective Tissue): (Contains no blood)
Cell: Chondrocytes; Chondroblasts found in growing cartilage. Matrix: Ge-like ground subtance; Fibers: Collagen, elastic fibers in some. Feature: Resists compression because of the large amounts of water held in the matrix. Functions to cushion & support body structure.
BONE TISSUE (Connective Tissue):
Cell: Osteocytos; OsteoBlasts. Matrix: Gel-like ground subtance calified with inorganic calium salts. Fibers: collagen. Feature: Hard tissue that resists both compression & tension. Function in support.
BLOOD (Connective Tissue):
Cell: Erythrocytes(RBC); Leukocytes(WBC); Platelets. Matrix: Plasma, no fiber. Feature: A fluid tissue; Function to carry O2, CO2, nutrient, wast, & other substances(hormones)
(Proper) LOOSE C.T: (base on density of protein)
Areolar: widely distributed under epithelia of body. ex: forms lamina propria of mucous membr, package organs, surrounds capillaries; Adipose: under skin in the hypoDermis, around kidney & eyeball, w/i abdomen, in breast. Reticular:LymphOid org─âns lynph nodes, bone marrow, & Spleen)
(Proper)(loose)Areolar (4 functions)
1. Fibers provide support: by 3 type of protein fibers, collagen, recticular, & elastic. 2. Ground subtance holds fluid: 3. Defense cell fight infection: 4. Fat cell store nutrient:
(Proper)(loose)Areolar Function 1: Fibers provide support.
By 3 type of protein fibers: collagen: (Unit fibrils) a thick collegen fiber bundles of thiner, striped threads recticular: a special type of collegen unit fibril. these short fiber clusters into dedicated network (=reticulum)that cover & support all structures bordering c.t. Elastic: Elastin, function like rubber bands. Fibrolast, a single kind of cell produce all fibers of areolar t.c.
(Proper)(loose)Areolar Function 2: Ground subtance holds fluid.
This gel-like material consist of large sugar & sugar-protein molecules that soak in fluid like sponge. These molecules called Glycosaminoglycans & Proteoglycans. These of ground subtance are amde & secreted by near by fibroblast. These fibroblast attach to matrix componenets trough Intergral protein in palsma membrane called INTERGRINS.
(Proper)(loose)Areolar Function 3: Defense cell fight infection. Lymph- : water -Phil : water
against infectious MicroOrganism, bacteria, virus, fungi, parasite. Macrophases: @ big eater. Eats bacteria, foreign molecles to dirt particles. It also dispose dead tissue. Plasma Cell: Antibodies. Mast Cell: @ stuff full(of granules) that mediate inflammation. Such chemical mediators include histamine, heharin, proteases. WHite blood cells: NeutroPhil, LymphoCytes, EosinoPhil.
(Proper)(loose)Areolar Function 4: Fat cell store nutrient
Minor funtion is to store energy reserves as fat called Adipose or AdipoCyte. Fat cell occur Singly or in small group.
(Proper)(loose)Adipose
Type: White Adipose Tissue or White Fat. Brown Adipose Tissue, produc e heat & is a nutrient consumer. FUNCTION: provide reserve food fuel, insulates against heat loss, support & protect organs. LOCATION: undr skin in hypoDermis, around kidney & eyeballs, w/i abdomen, in breast.
(Proper)(loose)Reticular
resemble areolar but only fibers in it matrix. FUNCTION: Fiber forms & soft internal skeleton(Stroma) that support other cell types including white blood cells, mast cell& macroPhase. LOCATION:
(Proper) DENSE C.T: (base on density of protein)
Dense Regular; Dense Irregular; Elastic
(Proper)Dense Regular
Description:Primarily parallel collagen fibers; a few elastic fiber; maojor cell type is the fibrolast. Fibrolast nuclei are aligned // to collegen fibers. Function: Attach muscles to bone & vice versa; attach bone to bone; withstand great ensile stress when pulling force is applied in 1 direction. Location: Tendons, most ligaments, aponeuroses.
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