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What are the ADA requirements based on?
ICC/ANSI A177.1, Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities
True or False: The ADA is not a code or standard
True: the ADA is a piece of civil rights legislation; however, designers must adhere to its provisions when designing the facilities covered by the law.
What is a model code?
A code that has been written by a group comprised of experts knowledgeable in the field, without reference to any particular geographical area.
What are 6 codes that the International Code Council (ICC) publishes?
1. International Building Code (IBC)
2. International Residential Code
3. International Fire Code
4. International Mechanical Code
5. International Plumbing Code
6. International Zoning Code
Who publishes the National Electric Code (NEC)?
The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
True or False: Standards are laws.
False: by themselves, standards have no legal standing; only when they are referred to in a building code and that code is adopted by a governmental jurisdiction do standards become law.
True or False: ASTM International performs tests on products.
False: ASTM writes procedures and standards that are used by testing agencies to test products.
List 6 standards-writing organizations
4. IES (Illuminating Engineering Society)
5. GA (Gypsum Association)
6. TCNA (Tile Council of North America)
What is the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) responsible for?
They approve standards developed by other organizations and work to avoid duplications between different standards - they do not develop or write standards.
What is an NRTL?
Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory - an independent laboratory recognized by OSHA to test products to the specifications of applicable product safety standards.
Name one well-known NRTL?
Underwriters Laboratories (UL) - they develop standards and test products for safety.
Explain the difference between a UL listed label and a classified label.
A listed label is awarded when a complete and total product is tested and passes. 
A classified label is awarded when samples of the product were tested for certain types of uses only.
What does ASTM E119: Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials test? What are the 2 parts of the test?

What sort of ratings are given?
Walls, Floor/ceiling assemblies and Opening assemblies

Heat transfer through the assembly & hose stream test

Time-based ratings (ie, 1-hour; 20-minute)
What does NFPA 252 test?
Door Assemblies
What does NFPA 257 test?
Window and glass block assemblies
What does ASTM E84 test?
What sort of rating results from the test?
Rates the surface burning characteristics of interior finishes and other building materials
(AKA the Steiner tunnel test)
Flame-spread rating (compared to glass-reinforced cement board = 0 and red oak flooring = 100):
Class (A)I = 0-25
Class (B)II = 26-75
Class (C)III = 76-200
What does ASTM E662/NFPA 258 test?
Measures the amount of smoke given off by a flaming or smoldering material or finish and a smoke density value from 0 to 800 is assigned; most codes require a smoke density of 450 or less.
What does NFPA 253/ASTM 648 test?
Carpet flammability
The flooring radiant panel test - measures the flame spread in a carpeted corridor with the measured critical radiant flux given in watts per square centimeter:
Class I materials have a critical radiant flux at least 0.45 W/sq cm
Class II materials have a critical radiant flux at least 0.22 W/sq cm
What does ASTM D2859 test?
Carpet flammability

The methanamine pill test

The carpet either passes or fails
What does NFPA 265 test?

Room corner test The contribution of interior textile wall and ceiling coverings to room fire growth.

What does NFPA 286 test?
The contribution of interior non-textile wall and ceiling coverings to room fire growth.
What does NFPA 701 test?
The flammability of draperies, curtains, or other window treatments.
2 test procedures - one for fabrics lighter than 21 oz/sq yd and one for fabrics heaveir than 21 oz/sq yd
The sample either passes or fails.
Exit-access corridors are usually required to have walls and doors with what ratings?
Walls: 1-hour

Door assemblies: 20 minute
Which offers more protection: fire partition or fire barrier?
Fire barrier
(Fire partitions usually extend from floor to deck but fire barriers always extend from floor to deck)
What is a smoke barrier?
A continuous vertical or horizontal membrane with a minimum fire-resistance rating of 1 hour, designed and constructed to restrict the movement of smoke.
What types of interior materials are tested and rated according to surface burning characteristics?
Wainscotting, paneling, heavy wallcovering and other finishes applied structurally or for decoration, acoustical correction, surface insulation, etc.
What types of interior materials are not tested and rated according to surface burning characteristics?
Chair rails, baseboards, handrails.

Materials that are less than 0.036" thick cemented to the surface of noncombusible walls or ceilings.
If textile wallcoverings are used, they must comply with one of what 3 conditions?
1. Rated class A by ASTM E84 and be protected by an automatic sprinkler system.
2. Meet the requirements of Method B test protocol of NFPA 265.
3. Meet the requirements of NFPA 286
What are the limitations (as a percentage of the aggregate area of walls & ceilings) on the amounts of:
1. Noncombustible decorative materials?
2. Flame-resistant materials in occupancies other than group A?
3. Flame-resistant materials in group A occupancies, fully sprinklered?
1. Unlimited
2. 10%
3. 75%
Materials used as interior trim must have a minimum of what class flame-spread index?
Class C
Combustible trim (ie. wood), excluding handrails and guardrails, cannot exceed what percentage of the specific wall or ceiling area in which it is attached?
True or False: When a Class I floor finish is required, the base can be Class II.
False: the base must also be Class I.
In order to achieve equivalent safety in building design, each occupancy group varies by what 4 characteristics?
1. fire protection requirements
2. area and height limitations
3. type of construction restrictions
4. means-of-egress elements
What are the 10 occupancy classifications?



Factory and industrial






What is an accessory occupancy?
A space or room that is ancillary to the main occupancy but does not exceed 10% of the floor area of the main occupancy. They do not need to be separated from the main occupancy with a fire barrier.
What is an incidental accessory occupancy?
An area that is incidental to the main occupancy and has the same classification as the nearest main occupancy but, by code, must be separated from the main occupancy by a fire barrier or equipped with an automatic fire-extinguishing system, or both as required by a table in the code. It cannot exceed 10% of the area of the story on which it is located.
Describe the 5 types of construction.
Type I - most fire resistive, non-combustible
Type II - non-combustible
Type III - combustible
Type IV - combustible (only type without A & B subgroups)
Type V - combustible
(A & B subgroup indicates whether the construction is fire protected or not)
What are the 2 factors that limit building area and height?
1. Occupancy group

2. Building (or construction) type
Corridor must have what rating in:

1. Nonsprinklered buildings

2. Sprinklered buildings
1. 1 hour

2. no rating required
What type of glazing must be installed in hazardous locations (ie, where it is subject to human impact)?
Safety glazing - ie, tempered glass or laminated glass.
What are the 2 types of glazing that may be used in fire-resistance-rated partitions?
1. Fire-protection-rated glazing

2. Fire-resistance-rated glazing
What is fire-protection-rated glazing?
1/4" thick wired glass in steel frames or other types of glazing that meet NFPA 252;
Must have a 45-minute rating and is limited to 1-hour partitions;
The amount is limited to 25% of the area of the common wall;
Individual lights cannot exceed 1296 sq inches;
It cannot be used in doors and sidelights (unless it is also classified for impact resistance)
What is fire-resistance-rated glazing?
Glass or other glazing material that has been tested as part of a fire-resistance-rated wall assembly according to ASTM E119;
Can have fire-resistive ratings up to 2 hours;
No area limitations
Where are guards (guardrails) required?
Open-sided walking surfaces


Industrial equipment platforms



Landings that are more than 30" above the floor

(Not at stages or raised platforms)
How high to guards need to be?

What load applied in any direction at their top to they need to be able to resist?
1. 42"

2. 50 lbf/ft
What diameter sphere should not be able to pass through guard openings below 36" AFF?

Between 36" and 42" AFF?
1. 4"

2 4-3/8"
What codes govern:

1. Mechanical systems

2. Plumbing systems

3. Electrical systems
1. International Mechanical Code

2. International Plumbing Code

3. National Electrical Code (NEC) published by the National Fire Protection Associations (NFPA)
What is the minimum sound transmission class (STC) required by the IBC for wall assemblies in residential occupancies separating dwelling units or guest rooms from each other and from public spaces?
50 (45 if field tested)
What is the difference between a fire-protection rating and a fire-resistance rating?
Fire-protection rating applies to an opening assembly (door or window)
Fire-resistance rating applies to a building component (wall, floor, roof, beam or column)
Under what 2 circumstances will the IBC and UBC classify a material as noncombustible?
If it is tested in accordance with ASTM E136, Standard Test Method for Behavior of Materials in a Vertical Tube Furnace at 750 degrees C.


If it has a structural base of noncombustible material with a surfacing not more than 1/8" thick that has a flame-spread index no greater than 50.
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