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What type of drugs increase the strength or force of the contraction (or pumping) of the heart muscle (myocardium) and slow the heart rate.
Define cardiac glycosides
These are the cardiotonic drugs. Cardiac glycosides are sugar-containing substances made from plants). The major cardiac glycoside is the digitalis preparation digoxin
What are the mode of action for calcium channel blockers?
Some act directly on vascular smooth muscle to dilate coronary arteries and arterioles, which relieves anginal pain because more oxygen can go to the cardiac tissue. Others are used to reduce the response of the cardiac conduction system to electrical impulses and treat cardiac dysrhythmias. They are also used with other drugs to treat hypertension.
Medicine “X” 20 mg PO 4 times daily, 10 mg/tab on hand, how many tabs for each dosage?
2 tabs 20 mg/10 mg = 2 tabs
Which drug lower the pressure out in the tissues of the arms and legs, or the peripheral resistance?
Define Hydrochlorothiazide
This is a diuretic within the thiazide class of diuretics. They work to prevent the reabsorption of sodium and chloride through direct action on the end of the ascending loop and the beginning of the distal tubule of the loop of Henle in the distal kidney tubule. They act to block sodium and chloride reabsorption and slightly limit carbonic anhydrase. Their long half-life may lead to the loss of large amounts of potassium. The thiazides also act directly to dilate the smooth muscles in the arterioles, the smallest vessels in the arterial system. They also promote reabsorption of calcium, which may make them good for use in older adults with osteoporosis.
What is the unique relationship between fluid balance and electrolytes?
Strong pumping of the heart, good circulation through the vessels, and the full removal of by-products through the urinary system are all needed to keep the body\'s fluid and electrolyte balance. Lack of body fluid may be due to inadequate intake, excess loss, or both. This imbalance may be treated by administration of fluids and electrolyte mixtures.
What is the impact on cardiac drugs when electrolyte balance is altered?
Any medication that changes the electrolyte balance may also lead to digitalis toxicity.
What is the clinical/physiological significance of an MI?
When the heart does not get enough blood to its muscle cells, those cells die. This is called myocardial infarction.
What is Lasix?
Trade name for furosemide, a loop diuretic.
What are major interventions for the treatment of PVD?
Vasodilating agents (agents to open up the vessels) are used for peripheral vascular disease.
What are given in the event that oral food intake has been suspended or to treat or prevent dehydration and electrolyte loss?
What are the major classes of cardiovascular medications?
antianginals, peripheral vasodilators, antidysrhythmics, antihyperlipidemics, antihypertensives, cardiotonics, and diuretics
Infuse 500 mL blood in 2 hours. administration set as a drop factor of 10. How many drops per minute?
42 gtts/min 500 mL x 10 (drop factor) = 5,000 2 hours x 60 (minutes) = 120 5000 mL/120 min = 41.666 or 42 gtt/min
What are some of the foods that are the most rich in potassium?
Good sources of potassium include bananas and citrus fruits, dried fruits, dried beans and lentils, and all-bran cereal.
What sorts of things may cause an exacerbation of anginal pain?
stress, heavy exercise, overeating, and smoking
When does the highest rate of cholesterol production occur?
from midnight to 5 AM
Pt is getting 1000 ml NS iv fluids at 125 ml/hr started at 12:00 noon on 9/23, what time will it be when this medication runs out?
8 pm 9/23 1000 mL/125 mL = 8 12:00 noon + 8 hours = 8:00 pm on 9/23
What is emboli?
A moving clot
What are the four classes of drugs are used to treat hyperlipidemia?
Hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, the fibric acid derivatives, bile acid sequestrants, and niacin
Which drugs help slow down the flow of calcium ions across the cell membrane, thus reducing the amount of calcium available for electrical impulse movement?
Calcium Channel Blockers
Which drugs indirectly reduce blood pressure by producing sodium and water loss and lowering the tone or rigidity of the arteries?
Which drugs are nervous system stimulants and inhibitors that assist in lowering cardiac output and/or peripheral resistance?
Adrenergic antagonists
Determine the flow rate for IV administration of 1200 mL to be given at rate of 3 mL/min. Drop factor is 15
1 mL = 15 gtts 3 mL = 45 gtts/min flow rate is 45 gtt/min
What is low blood pressure when a person suddenly stands up?
Postural hypotension
What are the 4 classes of diuretics?
thiazides (for example, chlorothiazide, hydrochlorothiazide), the thiazide-like sulfonamides (for example, metolazone, and indapamide), loop diuretics (for example, furosemide, and bumetanide), and the potassium-sparing diuretics (for example, amiloride, triamterene, and spironolactone).
What is Pyridium?
It is a drug for urinary analgesia
What is Zocor?
Trade name for Simvastin, one of several HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors used to treat hyperlipidemia. They are the most costly drugs for treating hyperlipidemia, but patients also tolerate them best, and they are highly effective at lowering LDL levels.
Which type of diuretic acts by blocking active transport of chloride, sodium, and potassium in the thick ascending loop of Henle. These drugs often work well in patients with very low glomerular filtration rates, because they are so efficient in limiting the reabsorption of sodium. The peak diuretic effect is much greater with this class of diuretics than that seen with any other type of diuretic. They are often used in patients with kidney disease and to treat congestive heart failure (CHF), cirrhosis of the liver, and kidney diseases in which a powerful diuretic is required.
Loop Diuretics
Which products have a direct action on vascular smooth muscle and cause it to relax. This effect is felt in both the arterial and venous circulation. Arterial relaxation reduces the pressures the heart has to pump against, whereas venous relaxation helps in venous pooling of blood, thereby decreasing venous return to the heart. These effects work together to decrease myocardial oxygen use.
What is an accumulation of platelets, fibrin, clotting factors, and cellular elements of the blood attached to the anterior wall of a vessel, sometimes occluding the lumen of the vessel?
What are the symptoms of digoxin toxicity?
Bradycardia, dysrhythmia, tachycardia, Apathy, confusion, delirium, disorientation, drowsiness, headache, mental depression, visual changes (blurred vision, yellow/green vision, halos around dark objects), Anorexia, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and severe weakness
What is the drop factor for microdrip tubing?
60 gtt/min
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