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Lab/diagnostic finding
Diagnosis/disease
Anticentromere antibodies
Scleroderma (CREST)
Antidesmoglein (epithelial) antibodies
Pemphigus vulgaris (blistering)
Anti–glomerular basement membrane antibodies
Goodpasture’s syndrome (glomerulonephritis and lung hemorrhage)
Antihistone antibodies
Drug-induced SLE
Anti-IgG antibodies
Rheumatoid arthritis (systemic inflammation, joint pannus, boutonniere deformity)
Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs)
1° biliary cirrhosis (female, cholestasis, portal hypertension)
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs)
Vasculitis (Wegener’s, microscopic polyangiitis, glomerulonephritis)
Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs: anti-Smith and anti-dsDNA)
SLE (type III hypersensitivity)
Antiplatelet antibodies
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) (bleeding diathesis)
Anti-topoisomerase antibodies
Diffuse systemic scleroderma
Anti-transglutaminase/antigliadin antibodies
Celiac disease (diarrhea, distention, weight loss)
Azurophilic granular needles in leukemic blasts
Auer rods (acute myelogenous leukemia: especially the promyelocytic type)
“Bamboo spine” on x-ray
Ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammatory arthritis: HLA-B27)
Basophilic nuclear remnants in RBCs
Howell-Jolly bodies (due to splenectomy or nonfunctional spleen)
Basophilic stippling of RBCs
Lead poisoning or sideroblastic anemia
Bloody tap on LP
Subarachnoid hemorrhage
“Boot-shaped” heart on x-ray
Tetralogy of Fallot, RVH
Branching gram-positive rods with sulfur granules
Actinomyces israelii
Bronchogenic apical lung tumor
Pancoast’s tumor (can compress sympathetic ganglion and cause Horner’s syndrome)
“Brown” tumor of bone
Hemorrhage (hemosiderin) causes brown color of osteolytic cysts. Due to: 1. Hyperparathyroidism 2. Osteitis fibrosa cystica (von Recklinghausen’s disease of bone) Cardiomegaly with apical atrophy Chagas’ disease (Trypanosoma cruzi )
Cellular crescents in Bowman’s capsule
Rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis
“Chocolate cyst” of ovary
Endometriosis (frequently involves both ovaries)
Circular grouping of dark tumor cells
Homer Wright rosettes (neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, retinoblastoma) surrounding pale neurofibrils
Colonies of mucoid Pseudomonas in lungs
Cystic fibrosis (CFTR mutation in Caucasians resulting in fat-soluble vitamin deficiency and mucous plugs)
Degeneration of dorsal column nerves
Tabes dorsalis (3° syphilis)
Depigmentation of neurons in substantia nigra
Parkinson’s disease (basal ganglia disorder: rigidity, resting tremor, bradykinesia)
Desquamated epithelium casts in sputum
Curschmann’s spirals (bronchial asthma; can result in whorled mucous plugs)
Disarrayed granulosa cells in eosinophilic fluid
Call-Exner bodies (granulosa-theca cell tumor of the ovary)
Dysplastic squamous cervical cells with nuclear enlargement and hyperchromasia
Koilocytes (HPV: predisposes to cervical cancer)
Enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies
“Owl’s-eye” appearance of CMV
Enlarged thyroid cells with ground-glass nuclei
“Orphan Annie” eye nuclei (papillary carcinoma of the thyroid)
Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in liver cell
Mallory bodies (alcoholic liver disease)
Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in nerve cell
Lewy body (Parkinson’s disease)
Eosinophilic globule in liver
Councilman body (toxic or viral hepatitis, often yellow fever)
Eosinophilic inclusion bodies in cytoplasm of hippocampal nerve cells
Rabies virus (Lyssavirus)
Extracellular amyloid deposition in gray matter of brain
Senile plaques (Alzheimer’s disease)
Giant B cells with bilobed nuclei with prominent inclusions (“owl’s eye”)
Reed-Sternberg cells (Hodgkin’s lymphoma)
Glomerulus-like structure surrounding vessel in germ cells
Schiller-Duval bodies (yolk sac tumor)
“Hair-on-end” (crew-cut) appearance on x-ray
β-thalassemia, sickle cell anemia (extramedullary hematopoiesis)
hCG elevated
Choriocarcinoma, hydatidiform mole (occurs with and without embryo)
Heart nodules (inflammatory)
Aschoff bodies (rheumatic fever)
Heterophile antibodies
Infectious mononucleosis (EBV)
Hexagonal, double-pointed, needle-like crystals in bronchial secretions
Bronchial asthma (Charcot-Leyden crystals: eosinophilic granules)
High level of D-dimers
DVT, pulmonary embolism, DIC
“Honeycomb lung” on x-ray
Interstitial fibrosis
Hypersegmented neutrophils
Megaloblastic anemia (B12, folate deficiency)
Hypochromic, microcytic anemia
Iron deficiency anemia, lead poisoning, thalassemia (HbF sometimes present)
Increased α-fetoprotein in amniotic fluid/ maternal serum
Anencephaly, spina bifida (neural tube defects)
Increased uric acid levels
Gout, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, myeloproliferative disorders, loop and thiazide diuretics
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