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acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)
a rapidly progressing cancer of the blood in which too many immature (not fully formed) lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell, are found in the bone marrow, blood, spleen, liver, and other organs.
acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)
a rapidly progressing cancer of the blood in which too many immature (not fully formed) granulocytes, a type of white blood cell, are found in the bone marrow and blood.
allogeneic bone marrow transplantation
a procedure in which a person receives stem cells from a compatible donor.
alpha thalassemia
an inherited blood disorder affecting the alpha chains of the hemoglobin molecule.
anemia
blood disorder caused by a deficiency of red blood cells or hemoglobin (the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells).
apheresis
a procedure in which blood is removed from a patient, certain fluid and cellular elements are removed, and the blood is then infused back into the patient.
aplastic anemia
one type of anemia that occurs when the bone marrow produces too few of all three types of blood cells: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
autologous bone marrow transplantation
a procedure in which a patient's own bone marrow is removed, treated with anticancer drugs or radiation, then returned to the patient.
autosomal recessive inheritance
a gene on one of the first 22 pairs of chromosomes, which, when present in two copies, causes a trait or disease to be expressed
beta thalassemia
an inherited blood disorder affecting the beta chains of the hemoglobin molecule.
biological therapy
using the body's immune system to fight cancer.
blasts
immature blood cells.
blood
}the life-maintaining fluid which is made up of plasma, red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and platelets; blood circulates through the body's heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries; it carries away waste matter and carbon dioxide, and brings nourishment, electrolytes, hormones, vitamins, antibodies, heat, and oxygen to the tissues.
blood banking
}the process that takes place in the laboratory to ensure that donated blood, or blood products, are safe before they are used in blood transfusions and other medical procedures. Blood banking includes typing the blood for transfusion and testing for infectious diseases.
blood plasma
the fluid part of blood that contains nutrients, glucose, proteins, minerals, enzymes, and other substances.
bone marrow aspiration and biopsy
the marrow may be removed by aspiration or a needle biopsy under local anesthesia. In aspiration biopsy, a fluid specimen is removed from the bone marrow. In a needle biopsy, marrow cells (not fluid) are removed. These methods are often used togethe
bone marrow transplantation (BMT)
the transfusion of healthy bone marrow cells into a person after their own unhealthy bone marrow has been eliminated.
chemotherapy
treatment with drugs to destroy cancer cells.
chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
a slowly progressing cancer of the blood in which too many lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell, are produced by the bone marrow and by organs of the lymph system.
chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)
a slowly progressing cancer of the blood in which too many white blood cells are produced in the bone marrow.
coagulation disorders
problems with either the inability for blood to clot properly, resulting in excessive bleeding, or excessive clotting leading to obstruction of veins and arteries (thrombosis).
complete blood count (CBC)
a measurement of size, number, and maturity of the different blood cells in a specific volume of blood.
computed tomography scan (Also called a CT or CAT scan.)
a diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a combination of x-rays and computer technology to produce cross-sectional images (often called slices), both horizontally and vertically, of the body. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are more detailed than general x-rays
factor
a protein in the blood that is needed to form the blood clot.
factor V Leiden
an inherited mutation (change in a gene) in factor V which increases a person’s risk for venous thrombosis.
folate deficiency
the lack of folic acid (one of the B vitamins) in the blood.
folic acid
a nutrient found in some green leafy vegetables, nuts, beans, citrus fruits, fortified breakfast cereals, and some vitamin supplements. Folic acid can help reduce the risk of birth defects of the brain and spinal cord.
glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD)
a deficiency of an enzyme - G6PD - in red blood cells, causing hemolytic anemia.
graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)
when the donor’s immune system acts against the recipient’s tissue, after transplantation.
granulocytes
a type of white blood cell. The different types of granulocytes include: basophils, eosinophils, and neutrophils
hemarthrosis
bleeding into a joint
hematocrit
the measurement of the percentage of red blood cells found in a specific volume of blood.
hematologist
a physician who specializes in the functions and disorders of the blood.
hematology
the scientific study of blood and blood-forming tissues.
hematopoiesis
the process of producing and developing new blood cells.
hemochromatosis
(Also called iron overload disease.) - a metabolic disorder that causes increased absorption of iron, which is deposited in the body tissues and organs. The iron accumulates in the body where it may become toxic and cause damage.
hemoglobin
substance in the red blood cells that supplies oxygen to the cells of the body.
hemolytic anemia
one type of anemia in which the red blood cells are destroyed prematurely.
hemophilia
}(Also called coagulation disorder.) - an inherited bleeding disorder caused by low levels, or absence of, a blood protein that is essential for clotting; hemophilia A is caused by a lack of the blood clotting protein factor VIII; hemophilia B is caused by a deficiency of factor IX.
Hodgkins disease
A type of lymphoma, a cancer in the lymphatic system; a rare disease, accounting for less than 1 percent of all cases of cancer in the US, and occurs most often in people between the ages of 15 and 34, and in people over age 55. Hodgkin's disease causes the cells in the lymphatic system to abnormally reproduce, eventually making the body less able to fight infection. Steady enlargement of lymph glands, spleen, and other lymphatic tissue occurs.
idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
a blood disorder characterized by an abnormal decrease in the number of blood platelets, which results in internal bleeding. There are two forms of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura: acute thrombocytopenic purpura and chronic thrombocytopenic purpura.
iron-deficiency anemia
the most common type of anemia. It is characterized by a lack of iron in the blood, which is necessary to make hemoglobin
leukapheresis
a procedure to remove excess lymphocytes from the body.
leukemia
a cancer of the blood-forming tissue. Leukemic cells look different than normal cells and do not function properly.
lymph
part of the lymphatic system; a thin, clear fluid that circulates through the lymphatic vessels and carries blood cells that fight infection and disease.
lymph node biopsy
}a procedure performed to remove tissue or cells from the body for examination under a microscope.
lymph nodes
part of the lymphatic system; bean-shaped organs, found in the underarm, groin, neck, and abdomen, that act as filters for the lymph fluid as it passes through them.
lymph vessels
part of the lymphatic system; thin tubes that carry lymph fluid throughout the body.
lymphatic system
part of the immune system; includes lymph, ducts, organs, lymph vessels, lymphocytes, and blood cells to fight disease and lymph nodes, whose function is to produce and carry white infection.
Lymphocytes
part of the lymphatic system; white blood cells that fight infection and disease.
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