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Hernia
Protrusion of an organ of the muscular wall of an organ though the cavitiy that normally contains it
Hiatal hernia
Occurs when the stomach protrudes upwards into the mediastinum through the esophageal opening in the diaphram
Inguinal hernia
occurs when part of the intesting protrudes downward into the groin region and commonly into the scrotal sac in the male
Cystocele
occurs when part of the urinary bladder herniates through the vaginal wall as a result of weakness of the pelvic muscles
Rectocele
the protrusion of a portion of the rectum towards the vagina
Omphalocele
(Omphal/o- umbilicus, navel) Herniation of the intestines through a weakness in the abdonimal wall around the navel occuring in infants at birth
Amnion
the sac (membrane) that syrrounds the embryo (called the fetus after the 8th week) in the uterus
Aminocentesis
A medical procedure used in prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalitites and fetal infections; a small amount of amniotic fluid, which contains fetal tissues, is extracted from the amnion or amniotic sac surrounding the developing fetus (between the 12th and 18th week) and the fetal DNA is examined for genetic abnormalities.
Steptococcus
A berry-shaped bacterium that grows in twisted chains. One group is known to cause such conditions as 'strep throat,' tonsilitis, rheumatic fever, and certain kidney aliments. Another group is known to cause infections in teeth, in the sinuses (cavities) of the nose and face, and in valves of the heart.
Staphylococci
A berry shaped bacterium that grows in small clusters. Staph lesions may be external (skin abscesses, boils, styes) or internal (abscesses in bone and kidney).
Abscess
A collection of pus, white blood cells, and protein that is present at the site of infection.
MRSA
(methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) Staph infections that affects the skin, causing biols and abscesses.
Diplococci
A berry-shaped bacterium that grows in pairs. Known to cause bacterial pneumonia and gonorrhea.
Blood Cells
Erythrocytes
Red blood cells. Made in the bone marrow (soft tissue in the center of certain bones). They carry oxygen from the lungs throuhg the blood to all the body cells. Hemoglobin, an important protien in erythrocytes, carries the oxygen through the blood stream. This is a very important function in catabolism (body cells use oxygen to burn food and release energy).
Leukocytes
White blood cells. There are 5 different types of leukocytes (3 granulocytes or polymorphonuclear, 2 mononuclear)
Granulocytes
Or Polymorphonuclear cells. Contian dark staining granules in their cytoplasm and a multilined nucleus.
Eosinophils
Active and increased in number in allergic conditions such as asthma. Granules stain red (eosin/o=rosy) with acidic stain. About 3% of leukocytes are eosinophils.
Basophils
The funciton of basophils is not clear, but the number of these cells increases in the healing phase of inflammation. Less than 1% of leukocytes are basophils. Granules stain blue with basic (bas/o= basic) stain.
Neutrophils
Important disease-fighting cells. They are phagocytes, so the engulf and digest bacteria.50%-60% of leukocytes are neutrophils, and they are refered to as 'polys' or polymorphonuclear leukocytes because of their multilobed nucleus.
Mononuclear Leukocytes (agranulocytes)
Contian one large nucleus and only a few granules in their cytoplasm. They are prodiced in bone marrow, as well as in lymph nodes and the spleen.
Lymphocytes
Fight disease by producing anitbodies, thereby destoying foreign cells. They attach directly to foreign cells and destroy them. Include T cells and B cells. Make up about 32% of leukocytes.
Monocytes
Engulf and destroy cellular debris after neutrophils have attacked foreign cells. They leave the bloodstream and enter tissues to become macrophages, which are large phagocytes. Make up 4% of leukocytes.
Thromocytes
Platelets, or clotting cells. They are formed in bone marrow, and are necessary for blood clotting.
Anemia
Condition of the reduction in the number of erythrocytes or in the amount of hemoglobin in the circulating blood.
Aplastic anemia
Occurs when bone marrow fails to produce not only erythrocytes but leukocytes and thrombocytes as well.
Ischemia
When tissue become ischemic it loses its normal flow of blood and becomes deprived of oxygen. Caused by blood clots lodging in a vessel or by the closing off of a vessel with fatty material.
Tonsillitis
When tonsils become infected of inflamed (by Streptococcal).
Acromegaly
Endocrine disorder. Occurs when the pituitary gland produces an excessive amount of growth hormone after the completionof puberty. Often reults in a benign tumor of the pituitary gland.
Splenomegaly
Occurs with development of high blood pressure in hepatic veins (portal hypertension) and hemolytic blood diseases ( anemias involving excessibe destruction of lysis of red blood cells).
Achondroplasia
An inherited disorder in which the bones of the arms and legs fail to grow to normal size because of a defect in catilage and bone. Results in a type of dwarfism, characterized by short limbs, a normal-sized head and body, and normal intelligence.
-ptosis
Condition occurs when eyelid muscles weaken; the affected person then has difficulty keeping the eye open.
Laparoscopy or Peritoneoscopy
Visual examination of the abdominal cavity using a laparoscope.
Tracheotomy
An incision into the trachea to open it below a blockage. May be preformed to remobe a foreign body of to obtain a biopsy.
Tracheostomy
An opening in the trachea through which an indwelling tube is inserted to allow air flow into the lungs or to help remove secretions from bronchial tubes.
Adenoids
Smalle masses of lymphatic tissue in the part of the pharynx near the nose and nasal passages.
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