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Front Back
Median or Sagittal plane
Vertical plane Divides body into left & right sections
Coronal or Frontal plane
Vertical plane Divides body into anterior & posterior
Transverse or Horizontal plane
Horizontal plane Divides body into top & bottom sections
Flexion
Forward movement in a sagittal plane Generally reduces angle at the joint
Extension
Backward movement in a sagittal plane Generally increases angle at the joint
Abduction
Movement away from the median plane
Adduction
Movement towards the median plane
Supination
Lateral rotation of the forearm Causes the palm to face anteriorly
Pronation
Medial rotation of the forearm Causes the palm to face posteriorly
Eversion
Turning the sole of the foot outwards
Inversion
Turning the sole of the foot inwards
Rotation
Movement of part of the body around its long axis
Circumduction
A combination of flexion, extension, abduction & adduction
Anterior or Ventral
In front of another structure Towards the front
Posterior or Dorsal
Behind another structure Towards the back
Superior
Above another structure Situated above
Inferior
Below another structure Situated below
Deep
Further away from body surface
Superficial
Closer to body surface
Medial
Closer to median plane
Lateral
Further away from median plane
Proximal
Closer to the trunk of origin Nearer to the point of attachment
Distal
Further away from the trunk or origin Farther from point of attachment
Ipsilateral
Same side of the body
Contralateral
Opposite side of the body
Peripheral
Away from the centre
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