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  refers to language that describes concepts rather than concrete images ( ideas and qualities rather than observable or specific things, people, or places). The observable or "physical" is usually described in concrete language.
  an extended narrative in prose or verse in which characters, events, and settings represent abstract qualities and in which the writer intends a second meaning to be read beneath the surface of the story; the underlying meaning may be moral, religious, political, social, or satiric.
  a short, simple narrative of an incident; often used for humorous effect or to make a point.
  Explanatory notes added to a text to explain, cite sources, or give bibliographical data.
  the presentation of two contrasting images. The ideas are balanced by word, phrase, clause, or paragraphs. "To be or not to be…" "Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country…."
  a short, often witty statement of a principle or a truth about life: "Early bird gets the worm."
  usually in poetry but sometimes in prose; the device of calling out to an imaginary, dead, or absent person or to a place, thing, or personified abstraction
  writing that attempts to prove the validity of a point of view or an idea by presenting reasoned arguments; persuasive writing is a form of argumentation
  harsh, awkward, or dissonant sounds used deliberately in poetry or prose; the opposite of euphony.
  descriptive writing that greatly exaggerates a specific feature of a person’s appearance or a facet of personality.
  a word or phrase (including slang) used in everyday conversation and informal writing but that is often inappropriate in formal writing (y’all, ain’t)
  quality of a piece of writing in which all the parts contribute to the development of the central idea, theme, or organizing principle
  Concrete Language
  Language that describes specific, observable things, people, or places, rather than ideas or qualities.
  implied or suggested meaning of a word because of its association in the reader’s mind .
  repetition of identical consonant sounds within two or more words in close proximity, as in boost/best; it can also be seen within several compound words, such as fulfill and ping- pong
  a riddle whose answer is or involves a pun; it may also be a paradox or difficult problem
  the process of moving from a general rule to a specific example
literal meaning of a word as defined
the picturing in words of something or someone through detailed observation of color, motion, sound, taste, smell, and touch; one of the four modes of discourse
word choice, an element of style; Diction creates tone, attitude, and style, as well as meaning. Different types and arrangements of words have significant effects on meaning. An essay written in academic diction would be much less colorful, but perhaps more precise than street slang.
writing whose purpose is to instruct or to teach. A didactic work is usually formal and focuses on moral or ethical concerns. Didactic writing may be fiction or nonfiction that teaches a specific lesson or moral or provides a model of correct behavior or thinking.
spoken or written language, including literary works; the four traditionally classified modes of discourse are description, exposition, narration, and persuasion.
Emotional Appeal
When a writer appeals to readers’ emotions (often through pathos) to excite and involve them in the argument
the use of a quotation at the beginning of a work that hints at its theme. Hemingway begins The Sun Also Rises with two epigraphs. One of them is "You are all a lost generation" by Gertrude Stein.
a conclusion one can draw from the presented details
a verbally abusive attack
reversing the customary (subject first, then verb, then complement) order of elements in a sentence or phrase; it is used effectively in many cases, such as posing a question: "Are you going to the store?" Usually, the element that appears first is emphasized more than the subject.
The special language of a profession or group. The term jargon usually has pejorative Associations with the implication that jargon is evasive, tedious, and unintelligible to outsiders. The writings of the lawyer and the literary critic are both susceptible to jargon.
Logical Appeal
When a writer tries to persuade the audience based on statistics, facts, and reasons. The process of reasoning
Songlike; characterized by emotions, subjectivity, and imagination.
the immediate revelation to the audience of the setting and other background information necessary for understanding the plot; also, explanation; one of the four modes of discourse
When a writer bases a claim upon an isolated example or asserts that a claim is certain rather than probable. Sweeping generalizations occur when a writer asserts that a claim applies to all instances instead of some.
a type of literary work, such as a novel or poem; there are also subgenres, such as science fiction or sonnet, within the larger genres
anything that causes laughter or amusement; up until the end of the Renaissance, humor meant a person’s temperament
deliberate exaggeration in order to create humor or emphasis (Example: He was so hungry he could have eaten a horse.)
A word or words, either figurative or literal, used to describe a sensory experience or an object perceived by the sense. An image is always a concrete representation.
Ethical Appeal;
When a writer tries to persuade the audience to respect and believe him or her based on a presentation of image of self through the text. Reputation is sometimes a factor in ethical appeal, but in all cases the aim is to gain the audience’s confidence.
a more acceptable and usually more pleasant way of saying something that might be inappropriate or uncomfortable. "He went to his final reward" is a common euphemism for "he died." Euphemisms are also often used to obscure the reality of a situation. The military uses "collateral damage" to indicate civilian deaths in a military operation.
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