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Where in the body is the pituitary galnd located?
At the base of the brain.
Why is the pituitary gland called the master gland?
Because it regulates the functions of the other glands.
Name the four hormones that the pituitary gland secretes.
1. somatotropin
2. adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
3. thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
4. gonadotropic hormones (FSH, LH, LTH)
What is another name for somatotropin?
human growth hormone (HGH)
What does human growth hormone (HGH) regulate?
It regulates growth, insufficient HGH porduction will result in growth abnormalities.
Where are the adrenal glands located?
Adjacent to the kidneys.
What type of hormones do the adrenal glands secrete?
Corticosteroids
What do corticosteroids do?
They act on the immune system to suppress the body's response to infection or trauma. They relieve inflammation, reduce swelling, and suppress symptoms in acute conditions.
Corticosteriod use can be subdivided into two broad categories, what are they?
1. As replacement therapy when secretions of the pituitary or adrenal glands are deficient.
2. For their anti-inflammatory & immunosuppressant properties.
True or False

Corticosteroid therapy is not curative, but is used as supportive therapy with other medications.
True
Prolonged administration of corticosteroids can cause what?
It can cause suppression of the pituitary gland with adrenocortical atrophy, and the body no longer produces its own hormone.
True or False

Withdrawal of corticosteriods following long term therapy should always be done suddenly to minimize side effects.
False - Corticosteriods should always be stoped after long term use with a gradual tapering dosade. Abrupt withdrawal can lead to acute adrenal insufficiency, shock, & even death.
List the side effects of corticosteroids if used for longer than very brief periods.
Delayed wound healing and increased susceptibility to infection. Osteoporosis with fractures. Stunting of growth in children due to premature closure of bone ends. Endocrine disorders including amenorrhea and hyperglycemia. CNS effects including vertigo, headache, and insomnia. Easy bruising, skin thinning, and tearing. Gastric irritation. Fluid retention and edema.
List some contraindications or extreme caution with the use of corticosteroids.
Avoid abrupt discontinuation. Hypothyroidism or cirrhosis due to exaggerated response. Diabetes due to increase of hyperglycemia. Children due to retarted growth. Hypertension and CHF. History of thromboembolic disorders or seizures. Pregnancy and lactation.
True or False

Corticosteroids inhibit antibody response so interactions occur with vaccines and toxoids.
True
Ture or False

Taking corticosteroids and estrogen or oral contraceptives together may cause pregnancy.
False - Taking them together may potentiate corticosteroids.
What are synthetic thyroid agents called?
Synthroids
Why are thyroid agents given?
They are used in the replacement therapy for hypothyroidism caused by diminished or absent thyriod function.
List some hypothyroid conditions in which replacement therapy is used.
Cretinism, myxedema, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, pituitary disorders, and thyroid destruction from surgery or radiation.
What is euthyroid?
Normal function of the thyroid.
Hypothyroidism causes what?
Slowed metabolism with symptoms ranging from fatigue, dry skin, weight gain, sensitivity to cold, irregular menses, to mental deterioration if untreated.
True or False

The endocrine system provides the same general functions as the nervous system: communication and control, however, the endocrine system is generally slower and has longer lasting control over the various body activites and functions.

True
How does the endocrine system exert control over the body?
Through secretion of hormones that circulate through the blood.
A malfunction of any part of the endocrine system can result in what?
A shift of homeostasis with far reaching systemic reactions.
What is the only component of the endocrine system that is close enough to the body surface for direct physical assessment?
The thyroid gland.
What is the term used for a group of cells secreting substances directly into the blood or lymph circulation and affecting another part of the body?
Endocrine
What are hormones?
Chemical substances that initiate or regulate activity of another organ, system, or galnd in another part of the body.
How is the level of hormone in the blood regulated?
By the homeostasis mechanism called negative feedback.
Which gland is often called the "master" gland because so many of its secretions influence other endocrine glands and body systems?
The pituitary gland.
The pituitary gland and the hypothalamus are attached by a stalk called what?
The infundibulum.
True or False

The pituitary gland is located next to the liver and the hypothalamus is located next to the left kidney.
False, they are both located in the head.
What does the thyroid look like and what does it store?
It looks like a butterfly and stores iodine.
The thyroid gland regulates the metabolic rate for what?
Carbohydrates, protein, and fats.
What hormones does the adrenal medulla secrete?
Epinephrine or adrenalin and norepinephrine or noradrenalin, which help the body function under stress.
True or False

Most endocrine disorders are a result of either overactivity or underactivity of glands.
True
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disorder of what?
Metabolism
For glucose to get into the cells, what must be present?
Insulin
What hormone is produced and secreted by the beta cells of the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas?
Insulin
Insulin is not needed for glucose to enter what two type of cells?
Brain cells and cells of the glomeruli.
True or False

The amount of fat in the blood regulates the rate of insulin secretion.
False, the amount of glucose in the blood does.
What are the functions of insulin?
1. Promotes conversion of glucose to glycogen for storage in the liver and inhibits conversion fo glycogen to glucose.
2. Promotes conversion of fatty acids into fat that can be stored as adipose tissue and prevents breakdown of adipose tissue and conversion of fat to ketone bodies.
3. Stimulates protein synthesis within tissues and inhibits breakdown of protein into amino acids.
What type of cells in the pancreas secrete glucagon?
Alpha cells
What is hyperglycemia?
Elevated blood glucose caused by a deficiency of insulin.
What is hypoglycemia?
Low blood glucose caused by a excess of insulin.
What are four types of DM?
1. type 1 diabeties
2. type 2 diabeties
3. gestational diabetes mellitus
4. other specific types
What are the two subdivisions of type 1 diabeties?
1. Immune mediated
2. Idiopathic
What is glycosuria?
Excess glucose in the urine.
What is polydipsia?
Excessive thrist
What is polyuria?
Increased urination
Glucose eliminated in the urine pulls excessive amounts of what with it called osmotic diuresis?
Water
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