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Neonatal Vitals

HR, RR, BP
HR= 110-170

RR= 30-60

BP= 60/40
What happens when the PVR decreases and the cord is clamped?
Pressure in the right side of the heart decrease and pressures in the left side increase
Preclampsia is described as a Triad of:
Hypertension, Proteinuria, & generalized edema
Preterm labor is defined as:
Labor before 37 weeks
What drug is used to help prevent preterm labor?
Magnesium sulfate
What is the name of the TYPE of drugs that are usedto prevent preterm labor?
Tocolytics
What drugs are given in conjunction with tocolyticsto help induce fetal lung maturity;reducing respiratory distress syndrome?
Corticosteroids
Most commonly used drug for labor induction
oxytocin
5 periods of embryonic development
Pseudoglandular
Alveolar
Canalicular
Embryonic
Saccular
Age of Infant
1 month-1 year
Age of child
more than one year
Which kind of surfactant shows up first in an embryo?
Immature surfactant
We have 50 million alveoli when born and increase to 350 million by age?
8
What does surfactant do?
It lowers surface tension
Do smaller alveoli have increased or decreased surface tension?
Increased surface tension
The composition of surfactant is made up of?
Phospholipids
What are the three phospholipids that make up surfactant?
Sphingomyelin
Phosphatidylglycerol (PG)
Lecithin
At what gestational age do babies have mature surfactant?
at 35 weeks of age
When does immature surfactant appear?
at 24 weeks
At what week in gestation is there a peak in Lecithin and also an increase in PG?
At 35 weeks
What is the L/S ratio?
it is the ratio of Lecithin to Sphingomyelin in fetal lungs
How is the L/S ratio obtained and what does it tell?
It is taken from amniotic fluid and is used to assess lung maturity
What ratio of Lecithin to Shpingomyelin is ideal for good lung function?
A ratio of at least 2/1
What will corticosteroids do during gestation and when should they be given to the mother?
they will help increase lung surfactant and and help with fetal lung maturation in a pre-term labor. They should be given to mother 48 hours before delivery
Where does gas exchange occur in utero?
through the placenta
What are the three shunts found in a fetus?
Ductus Venosus
Foramen Ovale
Ductus Arteriosis
What percent of blood actually goes to lungs in utero?
15%
What is considered full gestation?
38-42 weeks
What is the umbilical cord made up of?
1 umbilical vein and
2 umbilical arteries
What function does the umbilical vein serve?
It carries oxygenated blood from mom to fetus
What function do the 2 umbilical arteries serve?
They carry Co2 back to mom
What is the 1st fetal shunt and where is it located?
Ductus Venosus
located in liver
shunts 30-50% of oxygen rich blood around liver
What is the second fetal shunt and where is it located?
Foramen Ovale
Goes from Inferior vena cava to right atrium then to pulmonary artery
What is the third fetal shunt and where is it located?
Ductus Arteriosis
Located at the communication between pulmonary artery and the aorta
Image of Fetal Shunts
The ductus venosus shunt closes when the fetus is born and...
the umbilical cord is cut
Cutting of the cord and as infant begins to breathe; prompts an __ in pulmonary blood flow and an___ in Po2
Increase
Increase
What is the Po2 in utero?
30
What is the Po2 in a newborn?
50-70
A rapid increase in Po2 will inhibit prostaglandins causing them to constrict resulting in the _____ ______
to close
ductus arteriosus
What is a PDA?
Patent ductus arteriosus
Happens when a baby is born too early and smooth muscles havent formed
What is prolapse of umbilical cord?
Cord comes out first during delivery
What is placenta previa?
when placenta covers cervical opening
What is placental abruption?
What is most common cause of this?
premature seperation of placanta from the birth wall.
Hypertension is most common cause
What are the ages for high risk pregnancies?
Younger than 16 years and over 40 years
High flow therapy AKA: Vapotherm allows flows of up to __ L/min for adults and __ L/min for infants
 40 for adults
 8 for infants
What are the three primary manifestations in CF?
Chronic Lung Disease
Pancrereatic Insufficiency
Decrease in Reproduction
What are the two most common bacteria that cause infections in CF patients?
Staphylococcus aureus
Pseudomonas Aureginosa
Pancreatic Deficiency causes these 3 events in CFers
Malabsorption
Maldigestion
Small bowel obstruction
What test is used to diagnose CF?
The sweat chloride test
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