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STEP 1 CLUES NEUROLOGY
What is the Central Nervous System?
Brain and Spinal Cord; Oligodendrocytes ( 1 to Many)
What is the Peripheral Nervous System?
Everything except the Brain and Spinal Cord. Myelination by the Schwann Cells (1:1)
What is the Autonomic Nervous System?
Automatic Stuff.
What is the Somatic Nervous System?
Moving your muscles.
What is the Parasympathetic System?
Rest and Digest = Slows stuff down.
How does the Parasympathetic System behave?
"DUMBBELS"
Diarrhea
Urination
Miosis
Constrict
Bradycardia Bronchoconstriction Erection"Point" Lacrimation
Salivation
What is the Sympathetic System?
Filght -or- Flight ...... Speeds stuff up.
How does the Sympathetic System behave?
OPPOSITE OF PARASYMPATHETICS!
Constipation
Urinary Retention
Mydriasis "eyes wide with fright"
Tachycardia
Bronchodilate
Ejaculation"shoot"
Xerophthalmia
Xerostomia
What is Cushings Triad?
Hypertension Bradycardia
Irregular Breathing
What is Budd-Chiari?
Hepatic Vein Obstruction
What is Arnold-Chiari?
Foramen Magnum Obstruction
What is Anencephaly?
Notochord did not make contact with the brain - only have the Medulla.
What is an Encephalocele?
Brain tissue herniation.
What is a Dandy Walker malformation?
No cerebellum, Distended 4th and Lateral Ventricles.
What is an Arnold-Chiari malformation?
Herniation of cerebellum through foramen magnum.
TYPE I: Cerebellar Tonsils (Asymptomatic)
TYPE II: Cerebellar Vermis/Medulla
Hydrocephalus
Syringomyelia (loss of pain and temperature)
What is Spina bifida occulta?
Covered by skin with a tuft of hair.
What is Spina bifida aperta?
Has Opening (High AFP)
What is a Meningocele?
Sacral pocket with meninges in it.
What is a Meningomyelocele?
Sacral pocket with meninges and nerves in it.
What is Open-angle glaucoma?
Overproduction of fluid.
Painless Ipsilateral dilated pupil
Gradual Tunnel Vision
Optic disc cupping.
What is Closed-angle glaucoma?
Obstruction of canal of Schlemm
There is a sudden onset of pain.
This is an emergency.
What are the Watershead areas?
Hippocampus
Splenic Flexure
What bug loves the frontal lobe?
Rubella
What bug loves the temporal lobe?
HSV
What bug loves the parietal lobe?
Toxoplasma
What bug loves the hippocampus?
Rabies
What bug loves the posterior fossa?
TB
What bug loves the DCML tract?
Treponema
How do migranes present?
Aura
Photophobia
Numbness and Tingling
Throbbing HA
Nausea
How do tension headaches present?
"Band-like"pain starts in posterior neck
Increases throughout the day
Sleep disturbance
How do cluster headaches present?
Rhinorrhea
Unilateral orbital pain
Suicidal
Facial Flushing
Worse with lying down
How does temporal arteritis present?
Pain with chewing
Blind in one eye
How does trigeminal neuralgia present?
Sharp, shooting face pain
What are the 2 kinds of partial seizures?
Simple ( Aware)
Complex (Not Aware)
What are the 3 kinds of generalized seizures?
Tonic-Clonic:"Grand Mal"
Absence:"Petit Mal"
Status Epilepticus
How does an epidural hematoma present?
Intermittent consciousness (lucid interval)
How does a Subarachnoid Hemorrhage present?
Worst headache of my life.
History Of Berry Aneurysm
How does a Subdural Hematoma present?
Headache 4 weeks after trauma
Elderly (loose brain)
What is an Astrocytoma?
Rosenthal fibers - #1 in kids with Occipital headache
What is an Ependymoma?
Rosettes present
In the 4th Ventricle
Hydrocephalus
What is a Craniopharyngioma?
Motor Oil Biopsy
Tooth Enamel
Rathkes Pouch
ADH problem
Bitemporal hemianopsia
What is Glioblastoma multiforme?
Pseudopalisading
Necrosis
Worst Prognosis
Intralesional Hemorrhage
What is a Hemangioblastoma?
In the Cerebellum, associated with Von-Hippel-Lindau
What ia a Meduloblastoma?
Pseudorosettes compressing the brain. Early Morning Vomiting.
What is a Menigioma?
Located parasagittal. Psammoma bodies preesent, whorling pattern.Best Prognosis.
What are the most common places to metastasize to the brain?
From the Lung, Breast, and Skin.
Present at the White-Grey Junction.
What is an Oligodendroglioma?
Fried Eggs appearance
Nodular Calcification
What is a Pinealoma?
Loss of upward gaze Loss of circadian rhythm
Leads to Precocious Puberty.
What is a Schwannoma?
CN-8 nerve tumor.
Unilateral Deafness
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