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Autonomic ganglia for CN III
Sensory ganglia for CN VII
Autonomic ganglia for CN VII
PPG and submandibular
Autonomic ganglia for CN IX
Site of preganglionic nerve cells that elicits constriction of pupil
Nerve injured when deviation of protruded tongue
Ipsilateral CN XII
The most common cause of meningitis 0-6 months
Group B Strep, E. Coli, Listeria
The most common cause of meningitis in 6-60 years
Neisseria meningitides
Subarachnoid hemorrhage is most commonly from
A ruptured aneurysm
Inheritance pattern and chromosome of Huntington’s disease
Autosomal dominant, CAG triplet repeats on chromosome 4p
In Huntington’s, what areas of the brain are affected
Caudate nucleus and putamen - -> altering the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia - -> loss of motor inhibition
What type of therapy has shown to slow the progression of Alzheimer’s disease
Donepezil/Vitamin E
The Tetrad in Gerstmann’s Syndrome
1) Inability to distinguish right from left 2) Inability to identify fingers 3) Writing disability (Agraphia or dysgraphia) 4) Acalculia (Reading remains intact)
Gerstmann’s syndrome results from damage to the
Visual association cortex (angular gyrus)
Left posterior inferior frontal lobe injury results in
Broca’s (expressive) aphasia
Left posterior superior temporal gyrus injury results in
Wernickes (fluent/receptive) aphasia (may involve visual field defects)
Injury to the left sylvian region may result in
global aphasia as well as hemianopia and hemiplegia
Foramen where CN VII exits skull
Stylomastoid foramen
Major arterial supply to calvaria and supratentorial dura
Middle meningeal
Major artery to internal structures of head
What holes do the branches of the mandibular nerve exit (V1, V2, V3)
V1 – Superior orbital fissure, V2 – Foramen rotundum, V3 – Foramen ovale
Which Cranial Nerves pass through the Superior orbital fissue
CN III, IV, VI and the ophthalmic branch of V (V1)
This disease causes both Upper and Lower Motor Neuron signs when it affects both the anterior horn cells in the spinal cord and upper motor neurons in the spinal cord
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
The only FDA-approved treatment for ALS (Prolongs survival by 3-5 months)
A.K.A. “Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy Type I”, this disease causes progressive muscular atrophy of the leg below the knee (peroneal muscle atrophy) due toneuronal loss in the region of the anterior horn cells and posterior columns
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease
Anterior horn of the spinal cord is involved with
Meningeal scarring resulting from meningitis can lead to this complication
damage to arachnoid vili - -> hydrocephalus
The area postrema is found where and does what
Found in the medulla and contains chemoreceptors which detect toxins in the blood - -> induce vomiting
The general functions of the midbrain
helps regulate motor control, control of eye movements, and acoustic relay
superior colliculus is involved with
saccadic eye movements
the inferior colliculus is a synapsing point for
sound information
The general functions of the pons
repiratory and urinary bladder control as well as in vestibular control of eye movements
A.K.A. “arteries of stroke” these vessels supply the internal capsule, caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus
lateral striate arteries
The _______ and _________ are always medial to the internal capsule
Caudate and thalamus
The ________ and ______ are always lateral to the internal capsule
putamen and globus palidus (collectively called lentiform nucleus)
The anterior cerebral artery supplies
medial surface of the forebrain and supplies the leg-foot area of the sensory homunculus
An aneurysm in the anterior communicating artery can lead to
bitemporal lower quadrantanopia
The posterior cerebral artery supplies
midbrain (major supply), thalamus, lateral and medial geniculate bodies, and the ocipital lobe
Occlussion of the posterior cerebral artery can result in
contralateral hemianopia with macular sparing
In Wernicke-Korsakoff encephalopathy, thiamine deficiency in chronic alcohol abusers can result in damage to what part of the brain
Mammillary bodies
Lesions in the basal ganglia are associate with
movement disorders
Lesions in Broca’s area are associate with
motor aphasia with good comprehension
Lesions in the cerebellar vermis are associated with
truncal ataxia and dysarthria
Lesions in Wernicke’s area are associated with
receptive (sensory) aphasia with poor comprehension
The pathologic hallmark of Multiple sclerosis
small gray plaques of demyelination present in the white matter of the CNS, microscopic pathology reveals gliosis and demyelination with associated lipid-laden macrophages
Causes of dementia (name 5)
Alzheimer’s disease, Vitamin B12 deficiency, thyroid dysfunction, syphilis, and hepatic encephalopathy
A lower motor neuron lesion in the Right vagus nerver – uvula deviates
Left (opposite side)
Name the lesion – loss of sensation on right cheek
right maxillary nerve
Melanin-containing neuron with pink-staning incusions taken from the substantia nigra
Lewy bodies
Areas of the brain commonly involved in lacunar strokes
Internal capsule, caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus
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