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What are some common side effects of Thiazide diuretics? (7)
1. Hyperglycemia 2. Hyperuricemia 3. Hyperlipidemia 4. Hyponatremia 5. Hypokalemic Metabolic Acidosis 6. Hypovolemia 7. Calcium Retention
What are some common side effects of Loop Diuretics? (4)
1. Hypokalemic Metabolic Alkalosis 2. Hypovolemia 3. Ototoxicity 4. Calcium excretion
You should avoid thiazide diuretics and most loop diuretics (except?) in patients with what kind of allergy?
Sulfa Allergy
3 common side effects of antihypertensives?
1. Sedation 2. Depression (worst is methyldopa) 3. Sexual Dysfunction
Common side effects of Alpha-1 blockers?
First Pass Orthostatic Hypotension.
Aminoglycosides should be avoided in patients taking which drug? why?
Loop diuretics --> enhanced ototoxicity
Lithium should be avoided in patients taking what Blood Pressure medication?
Thiazide diuretics --> increases lithium toxicity.
Pt. presents with acetaminophen overdose. What do you order as the antidote?
Mucomyst (Acetylcysteine)
What would you order for a pt. presenting with a benzo overdose?
Flumazenil
What would you order for a pt. presenting with a Beta-Blocker overdose?
Glucagon
What would you order for a pt. presenting with a Carbon Monoxide overdose?
Oxygen and if severe place patient in hyperbaric chamber.
What would you order for a pt. presenting with a Cholinesterase inhibitor overdose?
Atropine or Pralidoxime
Industrial worker presents with copper poisoning. How do you treat him?
Penicillamine
How would you treat a pt. presenting with a Digoxin overdose?
First normalize electrolytes, esp. Potassium. Next consider Digoxin antibodies.
24 y/o woman with heavy periods who started taking high dose iron supplements 2 years ago, presents with iron overload. With what would you initially treat?
Deferoxamine
Some High school kids were trying to make alcohol at home. After drinking several glasses of thier home brew they began to experience abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and dizziness. How would you initially treat them?
Fomepizole or Ethanol to prevent Methanol Metabolism and allow time for excretion.
Treatment for Muscarinic receptor blockers?
Phygostigmine
Pt being treated for chronic pain, takes the entire bottle of opiod pain meds in a suicide attempt. Initial treatment?
Naloxone
Pt. Being treated for depression downs a bottle of amitriptyline. Initial treatment?
Sodium Bicarb (cardioprotective)
Treatment for quinidine overdose?
Sodium Bicarb to protect the heart.
What is the side effect? Acetazolamide
Carbonic anhydrase Inhibitor used to treat: Glaucoma?????? S/E: Metabolic Acidosis
What is the side effect? Amiodarone
Antiarrythmic S/E: Thyroid Dysfunction & Pulmonary Fibrosis
What is the side effect? ACE inhibitor
S/E: Cough. Can damage fetal kidneys.
What is the side effect? Chlorpropamide
S/E: SIADH
What is the side effect? Clofibrate
S/E: Increases risk of GI neoplasms
What is the side effect? Demeclocycline
S/E: Diabetes Insipidus
What is the side effect? Digitalis
S/E: GI dysfunction, Vision Changes, Arrhythmias
What is the side effect? Heparin
S/E: Thrombocytopenia, Thrombosis
What is the side effect? HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors
S/E: Liver (increased LFTs) and Muscle Toxicity (rhabdomyolosis)
What is the side effect? Hydralazine
S/E: Lupus Erythematosis
what is the side effect? Niacin
S/E: Skin Flushing and Pruritus
What is the side effect? Phenytoin
S/E: Folate deficiency, hirsutism, and is a teratogen
What is the side effect? Procainamide
S/E: Lupus Erythematosus
What is the side effect? Quinine
S/E: Cinchonism (e.g. Tinnitus, Vertigo)
What is the side effect? Trimethadione
S/E: Teratogen
What is the side effect? Valproic Acid
S/E: Neural Tube defects in offspring
What is the side effect? Warfarin
S/E: Necrosis, Teratogen
What is the side effect? Aminoglycosides
S/E: Hearing Loss, Renal Toxicity
What is the side effect? Chloramphenicol
S/E: Aplastic anemia, Gray baby syndrome,
What is the side effect? Clindamycin
Pseudomembranous Colitis
What is the side effect? Dideoxyinosine
S/E: Pancreatitis, Peripheral Neuropathy
What is the side effect? Ethambutol
S/E: Optic Neuritis
What is the side effect? Isoniazid
S/E: Vitamin B6 Deficiency, Lupus, Liver tox.
What is the side effect? Metronidazole
S/E: Disulfiram like reaction when taken with alcohol.
What is the side effect? Penicillins
S/E: Anaphylaxis, rash with EBV
What is the side effect? Quinolones
S/E: Teratogenic --> Cartilage damage.
What is the side effect? Tetracyclines
Photosensitivity, Teeth staining in children
What is the side effect? Vancomycin
S/E: Red Man Syndrome ( flushing and/or an erythematous rash that affects the face, neck and upper torso. These findings are due to non-specific mast cell degranulation and are not an IgE mediated allergic reaction.)
What is the side effect? Zidovudine (AZT)
S/E: Bone Marrow Suppression
Name the type of drugs that induce hepatic enzymes? (5)
1. Barbiturates 2. Antiepileptics 3. Isoniazid 4. Alcohol 5. Rifampin
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