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Aprox. what % of fetal circulation passes through fetal lungs?
15-20%
What age does alveoli stop increasing in number?
8 yrs
Fetal blood bypasses the lungs by passing through what?
Ductus arteriosus
Oxygenated blood enters the inferior vena cava by flowing through what?
Ductus venosus
What is the primary reason of the closing of the ductus arteriosus?
The increas in PO2, which then inhibits prostiglandins
What vessel carry''s deoxygenated blood from the fetus and how many are there?
Umbilical artery, 2
Which vessel in the umbilical cord carry''s oxygenated blood and how many are there?
Umbilical Vein,  1
Where is the foramen ovale located?
Between the left and right atrias
What should the L/S ratio be?
2-1
When does mature surfactant develope?
35 wks
What is the definition of infant?
1 month to 1 year
What is the function of lung surfactant?
To decrease surface tension at the alveoli.
What are the 5 major periods of lung development?
Embryonic
Pseudoglandular
Canalicular
Saccular
Alveolar
What is surfactant made out of?
Phospholipids
What are the phospholipids composed of?
Sphingomyelin,  Phosphotidylglycerol (PG), Phosphyatidylcholine (PC, but also called Lecithin)
How many weeks is considered premature?
> 35 wks
What is normal gestation for neonates?
38-42 wks
What is the normal RR for a 6-16 yr old?
12-25
What is a normal BP for a neonate?
60/40
What is a normal RR for a neonate?
30-60 b/pm
What is a normal HR for a neonate?
110-170 bpm
What is a normal BP for a 6-16 yr old?
Systolic 80-110
What is normal BP for 1 month to 18 month old?
Systolic 80-110
What is a normal BP for a 2-5 yr old?
Systolic 80-110
What is a normal RR for 1 month old - 18 month old?
20-40 b/pm
What is a normal HR for 2-5 yr old?
80-120 bpm
What is a normal HR for a 6-16 yr old?
70-110 bpm
What is a normal RR for a 2-5 yr old?
20-30 b/pm
What is prolapsing of the umbilical cord?
When the umbilical cord comes out first. 
What is Placenta previa?
When the placenta covers part or all of the cervix.
What is placenta abruption?
Its where the placenta prematurely pulls away from the uterine wall, causing the woman to go into labor.
What is the most common cause of placenta abruption?
Hypertention
What are ways of assessing the fetus in utero?
Ultrasound
Amniocentesis
Fetal Heart Monitoring
What can be tested from an Amniocentesis?
L/S ratio, genetic testing, chromosomal defects, meconium
What can be monitored with Fetal heart monitoring?
Non-stress test (NST)
Contraction stress test (CST) 
What is used to stop labor?
Magnesium sulfate
What is used to induce labor?
Pitocin (Oxytocin)
Acrocyanosis
Bluish color to the limbs on a neonate.  Normal in first few hours of life
Central cyanosis
Bluish color to the head and trunk of a neonate.  Indicates hypoxemia and immediate need for oxygen.
When suctioning a newborn, where should you suction first?
The mouth, then suction the nose.
What should be done in the first 30 seconds of a neonates life?
Prevent heat loss
Proper positioning
Clear the airway
Provide Tactile stimulation
  (primary vs secondary apnea)
Assess vital signs
What are 3 signs of respiratory distress in an neonate/infant/child?
Nasal Flaring
Grunting
Retractions
What is Hyperbilirubinemia?
Too much bilirubin in the body
How is Hyperbilirubinemia treated?
Phototherapy, this helps by breaking down the bilirubin in the skin.
What are some blood sampling methods in neonates?
Umbilical Aterey Cathether (UAC)
ABG''s
Heel stick - Capillary Blood Gas (CPG''s)
VBG''s  - Venous Blood Gas
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