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10th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
Powers of states and people. Anything not in the constitution is left to the states.
11th amendment "immunity"?
Generally, a state is immune from suit by an individual. However, a state can consent to be sued, or Congress can abrogate a state's immunity, as long as it is within Congress' authority to do so (i.e. constitutional authority).
11th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
(1795): Clarifies judicial power over foreign nationals, and limits ability of citizens to sue states in federal courts and under federal law.
12th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
(1804): Changes the method of presidential elections so that members of the electoral college cast separate ballots for president and vice president.
13th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
(1865): Abolishes slavery and grants Congress power to enforce abolition.
14th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
(1868): Defines United States citizenship; prohibits states from abridging citizens' privileges or immunities and right to due process and the equal protection of the law; repeals the three-fifths compromise.
15th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
(1870): Prohibits the federal government and the states from using a citizen's race, color, or previous status as a slave as a qualification for voting.
16th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
(1913): Authorizes unapportioned federal taxes on income.
17th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
(1913): Establishes direct election of senators.
18th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
(1919): Prohibited the manufacturing, importing, and exporting of beverage alcohol. Repealed by the Twenty-First Amendment.
1973 Rehabilitation Act?
An American piece of legislation that guaranteed certain rights to people with disabilities.
19th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
(1920): Prohibits the federal government and the states from using a citizen's sex as a qualification for voting.
1st Ammendment of the US Constitution?
Freedom of speech, press, religion, peaceable assembly, and to petition the government.
20th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
(1933): Changes details of Congressional and presidential terms and of presidential succession. (lame duck ammendment)
21st Ammendment of the US Constitution?
(1933): Repeals Eighteenth Amendment but permits states to retain prohibition and ban the importation of alcohol.
22nd Ammendment of the US Constitution?
(1951): Limits president to two terms.
23rd Ammendment of the US Constitution?
(1961): Grants presidential electors to the District of Columbia.
24th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
(1964): Prohibits the federal government and the states from requiring the payment of a tax as a qualification for voting for federal officials. (poll taxes)
25th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
(1967): Changes details of presidential succession, provides for temporary removal of president, and provides for replacement of the vice president.
26th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
(1971): Prohibits the federal government and the states from using an age greater than 18 as a qualification to vote.
27th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
(1992): Limits congressional pay raises. Was one of original 12 bill of rights.
2nd Ammendment of the US Constitution?
Right to keep and bear arms.
3rd Ammendment of the US Constitution?
Protection from quartering of troops.
4th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
Protection from unreasonable search and seizure.
527 groups
a political group organized under section 527 of the IRS Code that may accept and spend unlimited amounts of money on election activites so long as they are not spent on broadcast ads run in the last 30 days before a primary or 60 days before a general election where a clearly identified candidate is referred to and a relevant electorate is targeted; these groups were important to the 2000 and 2004 elections
5th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
Due process, double jeopardy, self-incrimination, private property.
6th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
Trial by jury, speedy trial, and other rights of the accused.
7th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
Civil trial by jury.
8th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
Prohibition of excessive bail, as well as cruel or unusual punishment.
9th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
Protection of rights not specifically enumerated in the Bill of Rights.
A man’s home is his castle
"A proverbial expression that illustrates the principle of individual privacy, which is fundamental to the American system of government. In this regard, the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitutionâ€"part of the Bill of Rightsâ€"prohibits “unreasonable searches and seizures.”
A1, Section 1 Constitution
Section 1 establishes the name of the Legislature to be The Congress, a bicameral, or two-part, body.
A1, Section 10 Constitution
Section 10, finally, prohibits the states from several things. They cannot make their own money, or declare war, or do most of the other things prohibited Congress in Section 9. They cannot tax goods from other states, nor can they have navies.
A1, Section 2 Constitution
Section 2 defines the House of Representatives, known as the lower house of Congress. It establishes a few minimum requirements, like a 25-year-old age limit, and establishes that the people themselves will elect the members for two years each. The members of the House are divided among the states proportionally, or according to size, giving more populous states more representatives in the House. The leader of the House is the Speaker of the House, chosen by the members.
A1, Section 3 Constitution
Section 3 defines the upper house of Congress, the Senate. Again, it establishes some minimum requirements, such as a 30-year-old age limit. Senators were originally appointed by the legislatures of the individual states, though this later changed. They serve for six years each. Each state has equal suffrage in the Senate, meaning that each state has the exact same number of Senators, two each, regardless of the population. This Section introduces the Vice-President, who is the leader of the Senate (called the President of the Senate); the Vice-President does not vote unless there is a tie.
A1, Section 4 Constitution
Section 4 says that each state may establish its own methods for electing members of the Congress, and mandates, or requires, that Congress must meet at least once per year.
A1, Section 5 Constitution
Section 5 says that Congress must have a minimum number of members present in order to meet, and that it may set fines for members who do not show up. It says that members may be expelled, that each house must keep a journal to record proceedings and votes, and that neither house can adjourn without the permission of the other.
A1, Section 6 Constitution
Section 6 establishes that members of Congress will be paid, that they cannot be detained while traveling to and from Congress, that they cannot hold any other office in the government while in the Congress.
A1, Section 7 Constitution
Section 7 details how bills become law. First, any bill for raising money (such as by taxes or fees) must start out in the House. All bills must pass both houses of Congress in the exact same form. Bills that pass both houses are sent to the President. He can either sign the bill, in which case it becomes law, or he can veto it. In the case of a veto, the bill is sent back to Congress, and if both houses pass it by a two-thirds majority, the bill becomes law over the President's veto. This is known as overriding a veto. There are a couple more options for the President. First, if he neither vetoes a bill nor signs it, it becomes a law without his signature after 10 days. The second option is called a pocket veto. It occurs if Congress sends the bill to the President and they then adjourn. If the President does not sign the bill within 10 days, it does not become law.
A1, Section 8 Constitution
Section 8 lists specific powers of Congress, including the power to establish and maintain an army and navy, to establish post offices, to create courts, to regulate commerce between the states, to declare war, and to raise money. It also includes a clause known as the Elastic Clause which allows it to pass any law necessary for the carrying out of the previously listed powers.
A1, Section 9 Constitution
Section 9 places certain limits on Congress. Certain legal items, such as suspension of habeas corpus, bills of attainder, and ex post facto laws are prohibited. No law can give preference to one state over another; no money can be taken from the treasury except by duly passed law, and no title of nobility, such as Prince or Marquis, will ever be established by the government.
A2, Section 1 Constitution
Section 1 establishes the office of the President and the Vice-President, and sets their terms to be four years. Presidents are elected by the Electoral College, whereby each state has one vote for each member of Congress. Originally, the President was the person with the most votes and the Vice-President was the person with the second most, though this is later changed. Certain minimum requirements are established again, such as a 35-year minimum age. Presidents must also be a natural-born citizen of the United States. The President is to be paid a salary, which cannot change, up or down, as long as he in is office.
A2, Section 2 Constitution
Section 2 gives the President some important powers. He is commander-in-chief of the armed forces and of the militia (National Guard) of all the states; he has a Cabinet to aid him, and can pardon criminals. He makes treaties with other nations, and picks many of the judges and other members of the government (all with the approval of the Senate).
A2, Section 3 Constitution
Section 3 establishes the duties of the President: to give a state of the union address, to make suggestions to Congress, to act as head of state by receiving ambassadors and other heads of state, and to be sure the laws of the United States are carried out.
A2, Section 4 Constitution
Section 4 briefly discusses the removal of the President, called impeachment.
A3, Section 1 Constitution
Section 1 establishes the Supreme Court, the highest court in the United States. It also sets the terms of judges, of both the Supreme Court and lower courts: that they serve as long as they are on "good behavior," which usually means for life (no Justice and only a few judges have ever been impeached). It also requires that judges shall be paid.
A3, Section 2 Constitution
Section 2 sets the kinds of cases that may be heard by the federal judiciary, which cases the Supreme Court may hear first (called original jurisdiction), and that all other cases heard by the Supreme Court are by appeal. It also guarantees trial by jury in criminal court.
A3, Section 3 Constitution
Section 3 defines, without any question, what the crime of treason is.
A4, Section 1 Constitution
Section 1 mandates that all states will honor the laws of all other states; this ensures, for example, that a couple married in Florida is also considered married by Arizona, or that someone convicted of a crime in Virginia is considered guilty by Wyoming.
A4, Section 2 Constitution
Section 2 guarantees that citizens of one state be treated equally and fairly like all citizens of another. It also says that if a person accused of a crime in one state flees to another, they will be returned to the state they fled from. This section also has a clause dealing with fugitive slaves that no longer applies.
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