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12th Amendment
Brought about by the Jefferson/Burr tie, stated that presidential and vice-presidential nominees would run on the same party ticket. Before that time, all of the candidates ran against each other, with the winner becoming president and second-place becoming vice-president.
13th Amendment
1865 - Freed all slaves, abolished slavery
13th, 14th, 15th Amendments
13th - Ended slavery, 14th - Gave blacks civil rights, 15th - Black suffrage
14th Amendment
1866 - Ratified in 1866. It fixed provision of the Civil Rights Bill: full citizenship to all native-born or naturalized Americans, including former slaves and immigrants.
15th Amendment
1870 - No one could be denied the right to vote on account of race, color, or having been a slave. It was to prevent states from amending their constitutions to deny black suffrage.
16th Amendment
Enacted income tax.
17th Amendment
Direct election of US Senators
1893 Depression
Profits dwindled, businesses went bankrupt and slid into debt. Caused loss of business confidence. 20% of the workforce unemployed. Let to the Pullman strike.
18th Amendment
Banned the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcohol. It was ratified on January 16, 1919 and repealed by the 21st Amendment in 1933. In the over 200 years of the U.S. Constitution, the 18th Amendment remains the only Amendment to ever have been repealed.
1992 - what went wrong (GB1)
(GB1) American economy favored powerful not middle class, natioanal debt, employment fell, forced into low paying jobs, losing benefits of pensiosn and health, black and hispanic = hit hardest
19th Amendment
Granted women the right to vote (finally). (1920)
20th Amendment
Written by George Norris and also called the "Lame Duck Amendment," it changed the inauguration date from March 4 to January 20 for president and vice president, and to January 3 for senators and representatives. It also said Congress must assemble at least once a year.
20th Amendment
(FDR) , change of dates for start of presidential/congressional terms
21st Amendment
(FDR) , 1933, repeal of prohibition
22nd Amendment
limits the number of terms a president may be elected to serve
23rd Amendment
(JFK), gave residents of Washington DC the right to vote
26th Amendment
(RN) , lowered the voting age to 18
27th Amendment*
(RN) , regulates pay raises for members of Congress
3/5 Compromise
The South wanted slaves to count of citizens in order to increase the population, and therefore increasing the number of Southerners in the House of Representatives. The North argued that slaves were property and couldn’t be counted. In the end, slaved came to be counted as 3/5 of a person.
54/40 of fight
An aggressive slogan adopted in the Oregon boundary dispute, a dispute over where the border between Canada and Oregon should be drawn. This was also Polk’s slogan â€" the Democrats wanted the U.S. border drawn at the 54 40 latitude. Polk settled for the 49 latitude in 1846.
A. Mitchell Palmer
He was chosen to round up immigrants that were questionably communists, and he ended up rounding up about 6000 people.`
A. Philip Randolph
President of the Brotherhood of Car Porters and a Black labor leader, in 1941 he arranged a march on Washington to end racial discrimination.
Aaron Burr
Was VP for Jefferson. Later killed Hamilton in a duel. Later still involved in a conspiracy to sever the western states.
ABC Powers
(WW) 1914 Argentina,Brazil,Chile offered to negotiate dispute between US and Mexico
Abraham Lincoln
Initially Senator from Illinois, rose to prominence through Lincoln Douglas Debates, led Union during Civil War, issued Emanciptation Proclamation, Gettysburg Address and Homestead Act. Killed after the war.
Acquisition of Florida from Spain
(JMon) Jackson gets Spain, praised by Adams and Monroe, not by Senate or House
Adam's "midnight judges"
A group of judges that was appointed by John Adams the night before he left office. He appointed them to go to the federal courts to have a long term federalist influence, because judges serve for life instead of limited terms
Adamson Act
(WW) , 1916; established an 8-hour work day for all employees on trains in interstate commerce, with extra pay for overtime
Adams-Onis Treaty
The negotiated sale of Spain's territories in eastern and western Florida to the U. S. for $5 million.
Adkins v. Children's Hospital
Reversed Muller v. Oregon, declared laws to protect women workers were unconstitutional. (1923)
Adlai Stevenson
ran against Eisenhower, , The Democratic candidate who ran against Eisenhower in 1952. His intellectual speeches earned him and his supporters the term "eggheads". Lost to Eisenhower. Ambassador to UN during Cuban Missile Crisis.
Admiral Nimitz
Commander of US fleet during WWII.
Aftermanth of Persian War
(WJC) UN wanted to inspect Iraq for weapons, so imposed economic santions, France, China and Russia oppose (since they had contracts with Iraq), then eventually UK and US considered ending sanctions, and Saddam ordered UN out of Iraq
Aftermath of the Vietnam War
(RN), 1973, when Nixon replaced American forces in Vietnam with South Vietnam, withdrawal caused hostilities between North and South in which as a result, all of Vietnam became Socialist Republic of Vietnam. (1976)
Agricultural Adjustment Act
(FDR) 1933 and 1938 , Helped farmers meet mortgages. Unconstitutional because the government was paying the farmers to waste 1/3 of there products. Created by Congress in 1933 as part of the New Deal this agency attempted to restrict agricultural production by paying farmers subsidies to take land out of production.
Aid To Somalia
(GB1) civil war, UN peacekeeping mission, US forces limited humanitarian, Bush Adminstration rejected disarm warrin factiosn and pressed for negotiations, later turned over control to UN, results, back to fighting
Al Capone
Mob leader in 1920s. Sent to prison for income tax evasion.
Al Jolson
Starred in the first "talkie" movie with sounds called "The Jazz Singer."
Alabama (Geneva Tribunal)
*1869-1872, Seward negotiates with England on recovering damages from Civil War, Treaty of Washington 1871, solved dispute over fisheries, boundaries, and Alabama
Where a group of Americans made a heroic stand against a much larger Mexican force. Their massacre became a rallying cry for eventual Texan independence.
Alaska National Interest Lands
(JEC) total area of national park doubled
Alaska purchased from Russia?
Albany Congress/Plan of Union
A conference in the summer of 1754. It advocated a union of the British colonies for their security and defense against French. Held by the British Board of Trade to help cement the loyalty of the Iroquois League. After receiving presents, provisions and promises of Redress of grievances. 150 representatives if tribes withdrew without committing themselves to the British cause.
Albany Plan
Benjamin Franklin submitted the Albany Plan during the Fr. and Ind. War on 1754 gathering of colonial delegates in Albany, New York. The plan called for the colonies to unify in the face of French and Native American threats. The delegates approved the plan, but the colonies rejected it for fear of losing too much power. The Crown did not support the plan either, as it was wary of too much cooperation between the colonies.
Alexander Hamilton
Helped write the Federalist Papers. A leading Federalist, he supported industry and strong central government. He created the National Bank and managed to pay off the U.S.'s early debts through tariffs and the excise tax on whiskey. His programs were designed to pay off the U.S.'s war debts and stabilize the economy; he believed that the United States should become a leading international commercial power. His programs included the creation of the National Bank, the establishment of the U.S.'s credit rate, increased tariffs, and an excise tax on whiskey. Also, he insisted that the federal government assume debts incurred by the states during the war.
Alexis de tocqueville
French historian whose book Democracy in Amerca was the first impartial study of institutions in the new nation.
Alf Landon
Ran against FDR in the 1936 election. He was weak on the radio and weaker in personal compaigning, and while he criticized FDR's spending, he also favored enough of FDR's New Deal to be ridiculed by the Democrats as an unsure idiot.
Alfred Thayer Mahan
"In 1890, he wrote The Influence of Sea Power upon History. He was a proponent of building a large navy. He said that a new, modern navy was necessary to protect the international trade America depended on and that control of the sea as the key to world.
Algeciras Conference
(TR) alliance (germany, austria, and italy),1906- settled the First Moroccan Crisis- started with Germany wanting an international conference on the Moroccan question of who gets what- Germany left with nothing and was further isolated- result of conference was that Britain, France, Russia, and the US began to see Germany as a potential threat that might seek to dominate all Europe- Germany began to see sinister plots to "encircle" Germany and prevent their development as a world power
Alger Hiss
State Department official convicted of being a secret agent for the Soviet Union, based largely on the accusation of a communist. Congressman Nixon became known nationwide due to his involvement with the investigation.
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