by ncidq


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Front Back
What are the book's 11 elements of design?
1. FORM
2. Point
3. Line
4. Plane
5. Volume
6. Shape
7. SCALE
8. COLOR
9. TEXTURE
10. PATTERN
11. LIGHT
What is form?
What are some typical words to describe forms?
How can the desiger use form?
The basic shape and configuration of an object or space.
Cylindrical, flat, square, linear.
Form gives the designer a powerful tool to create order, establish mood, and coordinate the diverse components of a finished space.
What is a point?
How can they be used in design?
A point is perceived when a two-dimensionally perceived object appears relatively small in relation to the plan against which it is seen.
Points used in groups can create either static or dynamic compositions and energize the plane on which they are placed.
Composition with points generally works best on walls, but small point objects can be suspended on the ceiling plan or the floor plane.
What is a line?
Where are they perceived in an interior space?
An object or form whose actual or visual length greatly exceeds any actual width or depth it may have.
Lines are perceived where one plane meets another, where edges occur and where there is a change in material, texture or color.
How are horizontal lines perceived?

Vertical lines?

Diagonal lines?

Curved lines?
Horizontal: Restful, stable, related to the plane of the earth.

Vertical: Connote strength, equilibrium, permanence and a strong upward movement.

Diagonal: Dynamic, represent movement.

Curved: Relate to the natural world and the human body; graceful, suggest gentle movement.
Given a horizontal line and a vertical line of the same length, which will appear longer?
The vertical line.
What is a plane?

How is it important in designing spaces?
A form with two dominant dimensions, length and width; Planes have some depth but that dimension is not perceived as much as the dominant dimensions.

Space is typically defined by planar surfaces - walls, ceilings, floors, furniture surfaces, all of which can be either harmonized or contrasted with one another.
What is volume?
How is it usually classified?
A spatial form having length, width and depth.
Can be either solid or void = positive or negative space = figure-ground.
Categorized as regular (cubic, cylindrical) or irregular (free-form or complex shapes) or by a dominant characteristic (tall, narrow, curvilinear)
What is shape?
How are they classified?
The unique characteristic of an object or space that defines it as distinct from adjacent objects or spaces.
Distinguished by planar or volumetric forms and can be geometric, irregular or natural.
What are some examples of symbolic qualities of the shapes square, circle, triangle?
Square: rational, stable form with no directionality.
Circle: unity and completeness with a definite focus at its center.
Triangle: stable yet dynamic
What is scale?
What is the most common scale, often used to judge the appropriateness of the dimensions of spaces?
The relative size of something as related to another element of known size.
Human scale (spaces can be judged against and actual person or an inanimate object that has a direct relationship to a human, ie a chair)
What are some ways scale can be used in design?
Can be used to give spaces an intimate feeleing or a monumental character.
Can be used to provide emphasis and contrast or to harmonize otherwise diverse forms.
1. What are additive colors?
2. Subtractive colors?
1. Colors created with light
2. Colors created with pigments
1. What are the 3 primary colors of light?
2. Of pigments?
1. red, green, blue
2. red, yellow, blue
Describe the 3 basic qualities of color.
1. Hue: basic color
2. Value: lightness or darkness
3. Intensity (or chroma): degree of purity
1. How is a tint created?
2. A shade?
3. A tone?
1. Add white to the color
2. Add black
3. Add grey or the color's complement.
Describe the Brewster color system (aka Prang color system).
The typical color wheel with 3 primaries (red, yellow, blue), 3 secondaries (orange, green, purple), & 6 tertiary colors (mix a primary with an adjacent secondary)
Describe the Munsell color system.
Describes color more accurately than Brewster system by incorporating hue, value and chroma (not just hue).
5 principle hues: yellow, green blue, purple and red.
Colors are designated with letters and numbers: G/6/3 is a green hue with a value of 6 and a chroma position of 3.
What are some effects of adjacent colors and light on color?
1. Complementary colors reinforce eachother.
2. Noncomplementary colors will tint the other with its own complement.
3. Two primary colors seen together will appear tinted with the third primary.
4. Simultaneous contrast (a color looks lighter on a dark background and darker on a light background)
5. A neutral grey will appear warm on a blue background and cool on a red background.
6. Light that has a strong hue component will intensify colors with similar hues and neutralize colors of complementary hues.
7. Dim lighting reduces a color's value and diminishes its hue.
What are some symbolic and associative meanings associated with specific colors?
1. People universally distinguish between warm and cool colors and perceive them to be active/stimulating and restful/quiet respectively.
2. Red: exciting, hot
3. Yellow: cheerful
4. Green: nature, cool, restful
5. Blue: calming, restive
What are some effects of color on spatial perception?
1. Warm colors tend to advance while cool colors recede
2. Bright, warm colors tend to make an object appear larger; dark colors tend to make an object appear smaller and heavier.
3. Light, neutral colors extend the apparent space of a room while dark values make a space feel closed in.
What are 5 common color schemes?
1. Monochromatic (or monotone for grayed out colors)
2. Analogous
3. Complementary (or split complementary or double complementary)
4. Triad (3 colors equally spaced around the color wheel)
5. Tetrad (4 colors equally spaced around the color wheel)
What is texture?
The surface quality of a material, either actual or visual, the perception of which is tied to the texture's visual qualities, the relationship of the texture with surrounding textures, the viewing distance and the lighting.
How can texture be used in design?
Adds interest to a space
Reinforces the design concept
Helps differentiate objects and surfaces from each other
Modulates light
Adds scale
Provides emphasis or focus on one part of a space
What is pattern?
How is it differentiated from texture?
The repetition of a decorative motif on a surface.
The individual elements of a pattern are usually discernible (at a reasonable viewing distance) as individual forms, whereas texture appears as an overall tone.
How can pattern be used in design?
Can add visual interest to a space.
Change the scale of a room.
Reinforce the design concept.
How is light used as an element of design?
It dictates how elements in the space are seen.
It has a physiological and emotional effect on people, making both quantity and quality of light important.
Can be used to provide emphasis, rhythm, balance and contrast.
Can be a point, line or plane.
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