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Groups of cells simular in form and function
tissue
Four primary tissue types
Epithelium
Connective
Muscle
Nerve
Tissues organized to perform specific body functions
Organs
Organs
-Contain several representatives of the primary tissues
The study of tissues
histology
The study of cells
cytology
Tissue that covers surfaces
Epithelium
Epithelial Tissue
Tissue which lines cavities and tubules
Epithelium
Tissues which mark our insides from our outsides
EPithelium
Hormone producing glands
Endocrine glands

(Epithelial tissue)
Sweat glands
Exocrine Glands

(Epithelial tissue)
Functions of epithelial tissue
protection
absorption
filtration
excretion
secretion
sensory reception
Epithelial function:
Protection
-Protects against bacterial invasion and chemical damage
-Respiratory epithelial tissue has cilia to capture and sweep dust and other particles away from lungs
Epithelial function:
Absorption
-stomach and small intesting... microvilli to increase absorption
-kidney tubules - absorb, secrete, filter
Epithelial function:
Secretion
-Kidney tubules - Absorb, filter, secrete

-Glands - Secrete
Distinguishing characteristics:
Epithelium
-Polarity - apical and basal surfaces
-Cellularity and specialized contacts
(cells fit closely together to form membranes and are bound by specialized contacts)
-Supported by connective tissue through the basement membrane
-Avasularity - lacking blood supply... except glandular epithelium
-Regeneration - epithelial tissue can regenerate easily.
Epithelial classification criteria
-shape of cell
Squamous, cuboidal, columnar,

-arraingment
number of layers - simple vs stratified
Two materials secreted by cells to create basement membrane
Epithelial secretion: Basal lamina
Connetive secretion: Reticular lamina
Amorphous material between epithelial and connective tissue layers
basement membrane
basal lamina
material secreted by epithelial cells in the stratum basale to help form the basement membrane
reticular lamina
material secreted by connective tissue cells to help form the basement membrane.
Lacking blood supply
avascularity -

Epithelial cells are avascular and so rely on difussion of nutrients from the underlying connective tissue.
Stratified epithelium are named by the cell shape at the apical surface of the membrane, not the basement side.
squamous, cuboidal, columnar
Simple columnar epithelium with cells that seem to be different hights and with nuclei lie at different heights
pseudostratified epithelium
Stratified epithelium with 'plump' cells designed to slide over each other
Transitional epithelium
Pseudostratified ciliated epithelium
Transitional epithelium
Where is Transitional epithelium found?
Urinary system organs:

Bladder, urethra,
Where is epithelial tissue found?
Membranes, linings, glands:

Serous membranes, skin, respiratory system, glands, outer sheath of hair follicles, digestive tract.
Ductless glands
Endocrine glands
Endocrine glands
Ductless glands that secrete hormones (only) into extracellular fluid to be taken up by the blood supply
Exocrine glands
retain their ducts ... secretions empty through ducts onto epithelial surface.  Includes:
Sweat, oil, liver, pancreas
lamina propria
connective tissue of the mucous lining that is covered by epithelium.
Function:
Simple squamous, epithelium
Allows passage of materials by diffusion and diltration in sites where protection is not important. 

Secretes lubricating substances in serosae.
Location:
Simple squamous, epithelium
Kidney glomeruli
air sacks of lungs
lining of heart
blood vessels
lymphatic vessles
lining of ventral body cavity (serosae)
Function:
Simple Cuboudal epithelium
Secretion and absorption
Simple squamous, epithelium
Location:
Simple cuboidal epithelium
Kidney tubules, ducts and secretory portions of small glands, ovary surface
Simple cuboidal epithelium
Kidney tubules, ducts and secretory portions of small glands, ovary surface
Simple cuboidal epithelium
Allows passage of materials by diffusion and diltration in sites where protection is not important.
Simple squamous epithelium
Secretion and absorption
Simple cuboidal epithelium
Kidney glomeruli
air sacks of lungs
lining of heart
blood vessels
lymphatic vessles
lining of ventral body cavity (serosae)
Simple squamous epithelium
Function:

Simple columnar epithelium
Absorption (microvilli), secretion of mucus enzymes (goblet cells),  propells mucus/reproductive cells (cillia)
Absorption (microvilli), secretion of mucus enzymes (goblet cells),  propells mucus/reproductive cells (cillia)
Simple columnar epithelium
Simple columnar epithelium
Location:

Simple columnar epithelium
Nonciliated - digestive tract (stomach to anus), gall bladder, and excretory ducts of some glands.

Ciliated - small bronchi, uterine tubes and some regions of uterous
Nonciliated - digestive tract (stomach to anus), gall bladder, and excretory ducts of some glands.

Ciliated - small bronchi, uterine tubes and some regions of uterous
Simple columnar epithelium
Function:
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Secretion (mucus/goblet cells), propulsion (ciliary action)
Location:
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Ciliated: Trachea, most of upper respiratory tract
Non-ciliated: Males sprem-carrying duct and ducts of large glands.
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