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Descibe an Atom and it's parts. P- E- N-
ATOM- smallest unit of any living or nonliving thing. PROTONS- positively charged particles found in the neucleus of an atom. ELECTRONS- Negitively charged particles that orbit the neucleus of an atom. NEUTRONS- particles with no charge found in the neucleus of an atom
Name the 5 parts that make up body organization. 1. C 2. T 3. O 4.O.S 5.OM
1.CELL-The basic unit of life that makes up tissues & organs. TISSUE- a group of cells that perform a specific funtion. 3.ORGAN- a structure of the body made up of a group of tissues that performs a function. 4. ORGAN SYSTEM- a group of organs that act together to perform a specialized function. 5.ORGANISM-an individual living thing
Name the 4 Body Processes/ 1.M 2.C 3.A 4.H
METABOLISM- all chemical & physical processes that go on in the body to sustain life. 2.CATABOLISM- the breaking down phase into nuteints the body can then use. 3.ANABOLISM-the building up phase- cells take nutrients & build up their cellular components. 4.HOMEOSTASIS- ateady state the body maintains to stay alive.
Describe an Isotonic contraction.
Muscle contracts & there is a change in the lenghth of the muscle. Desribes the majority of the body's voluntarry movements. EX: phsical excersise, running
Describe an Isometric muscle contraction
The Muscle being isolated is tensed, but the body is not moving. EX:Pushing against a wall flexes the Bicept mucle but body is still.
Name the 12 Organ Systems & their Organs. 1.I 2.SK 3.M 4.N 5.SE 6.EN 7.CA 8.LY 9.RE 10.DI 11.UR 12.RE 11.
1.INTEGUMENTARY-Skin 2. SKELETAL-206bones & joints 3.MUSCLE-provide movement & heat. 4.NERVOUS-Brain,Spinal cord, Nerves. 5.SENSORY- Eyes,Ears,NoseTongue. 6.ENDOCRINE-Pituitary,Thyroid,Adrenals sevretes hormones. 7.CARDIOVASCULAR-Heart & Vessels carries blood & removes waste. 8.LYMPHATIC-Spleen,Thymus,Lymph Nodes produce immunity 9.RESPIRATORY-lungs-brings oxygen removes carbon dioxide 10.DIGESTIVE-stomach,instestines~breaks down ffood ito nutrients 11.URINARY-kidneys,ureters,bladder,urethra~removes waste & excess water and urine. 12REPRODUCTIVE
What are the 3 Primary Muscle Movers? 1.AG 2.SY 3AN
1.AGONIST(Pime mover) the muscle that is most responsible for a particular movement when the muscle contracts. 2.SYNERGIST- a muscle that helps another muscle (Agonist) perform a movement. 3.ANTAGONIST-a muscle that works against the Agonist or performs the opposite movement.
Desribe muscle attachments. 1.TE 2.LIG. 3.OR 4INS.
1.TENDON-dense fibrous tissue that connects Muscle to bone. 2.LIGAMENTS-connective tissue that connects bone to bone. ORIGIN-the more Stationary attachment site. INSERTION-the more Moveable attachment site
Name the 5 planes of Division of the body 1.F 2.S 3.MS 4.T 5.O
1.FRONTAL-(coronal)Divides body into Anterior & Posterior portions. 2.SAGITAL-divides into Medial & Lateral portions. 3.MIDSAGITAL- divides into equal right & left. 4.TRANSVERSE- (horizontal) divides into Top & Bottom prtions.(Superior& Inferior) 5.OBLIQUE-Slanting plane thats not in any other plane.
Name the 12 Anatomical Directions 1.S 2.I 3.M 4.L 5.P 6.D 7.A 8.P 9.S 10.D 11.C 12.C
1.Superior-Above;in a higher position 2.INFERIOR-below;in a lower position 3.MEDIAL-closer to the midline of body 4.LATERAL-farther away from midline of the body 5.PROXIMAL-Closer to main mass of the body 6.DISTAL-Farther away from main mass of the body. 7.ANTERIOR-(Ventral)towards front front or surface,towards the belly 8.POSTERIOR-(Dorsal)towards the back surface 9.SUPERFICIAL-on the surface 10.DEEP-underneath several layers 11.CEPHALIC-towards the head 12.CAUDAL-towards the Sacrum
Name the 12 ways a Joint in the body can move: 1.F 2.E 3.HY 4.AB. 5.AD 6.SU 7.PR 8.EL 9.DE 10.D.F 11.P.F 12.PR.
1.FLEXION:a Bending motion i.e:bending the elbow,knee,making a fist. 2.EXTENSION:a straightening movement;the movement opposite of flexion. 3.HYPEREXTENSION-i.e:looking up at the sky hyperextends the neck. 4.ABDUCTION-movement AWAY from the midline of the body. 5.ADDUCTION-movement TOWARDS the midline of body. 6.SUPINATION-(SUPINE)rolling forearm so that the palm faces Anteriorly (lying on back) 7.PRONATION-rolling the foearm so that the palm faces posteriorly 8.ELEVATION-lifting a body part up. i.e:shrugging shoulders. 9.DEPRESSION-moving a body part DOWN i.e:opening mouth. 10.DORSIFLEXION-pulling the toes off the ground when standing. 11.PLANTAR FLEXION-standing on the tips of toes. 12.PROTRACTION-moving body part forward i.e:pushing jaw forward,pulling scapula forward
Name the 8 Body Cavities: 1.V.C 2.P.C.C 3.A.P.C 4.A.C 5.P.C 6.D.C 7.C.C 8.S.C
1.VENTRAL-made up of throracic & abdominal pelvic cavities. 2.THORACIC- within rib cage & above diaphram. contains heart & lungs. 3PERICARDIAL-within throracic-contains the heart. 4.ABDOMINAL PELVIC-below diaphram-contains abdomeninal& pelvis. 5.ABDOMINAL-contains most of digestive organs,liver & spleen 6.PELVIC-contains bladder,rectum, & some reproductive organs. 7.DORSAL-made up of Cranial& Spinal cavities. 8.SPINAL-cavity within spinal colum houses spinal cord
Name the 12 major bones of the upper skeleton. 1.SK 2.CL 3.SC 4.ST 5.RI 6.HU 7.VC 8.UB 9.RB 10.CA 11.MC 12.PH
1.SKULL 2.CLAVICAL- 3.SCAPULA- Shoulde Blade 4.STERNUM-Breast Bone 5.RIBS-Rib Cage 6.HUMEROUS-Upper arm bone 7.VERTEBRAL COLUM-Spine 8.ULNA BONE-Pinky side Fore Arm bone. 9.RADIAL BONE-Thumb side Fore Arm Bone. 10.CARPALS-bones that make up the palm 11.META CARPALS-Upper part of fingers 12.PHALANGES-lower part of finger tips
1.ILIUM-Upper crest of the hip bone 2.ISHIUM-Lower part of the hip with the right & left holes 4.SACRUM-butt bone 5.COCCYX-tail bone 6.GREATER TROCHANTER-upper leg bone at the hip 7.PUBIC BONE-in the pubic area 8.FEMOR-upper leg bone that attaches to the upper part of the knee. 9.PATELLA-Knee cap 10.TIBULA-shin bone~ front inside lower leg bone. 11.FIBULA-back outside lower leg bone attaches towards the pinky toe.
Name the 3 neck Flexors (forward bending)Muscle 1.SCR 2.SCA 3SP. CA
1.Sternocleodalmastoid-Prime Mover, crosses over the neck from lateral (side) to Anterior(front)action-bilaterally:lateral flexion,neck rotation 2.SCALENES-(anterior/front,middle,posterior/rear-Lateral side of neck bilaterally: Raises 1st 2 ribs,assists in neck flexion 3.SPLENIUS CAPITUS-back of neck below occiput.Bilaterally:neck extension/straightening unilaterally:neck rotation,lateral flexion/bending forwards.
Name 2 neck Rotators 1.SCM 2.SP.CA
1.STERNOCLEODOMASTIOD-Origin:manubrium off sternum;clavicle insertion:mastoid process of temporal bone. 2.SPLENIUS CAPITUS-origin:Nuchial Ligament & spinious process insertion:occipital bone & mastoid process
Name the 2 muscles that elevate (lifts up) the Scapula (shoulder blde) 1.TR L.S.
1.TRAPEZIUS-Upper. onthe upper back~(superficial)elevates & assists with upward Rotation 2.LAVATOR SCAPULAE-under Trapezius on lateral side of neck & C1-C4 Elevates & downward rotation
Name the 2 muscles that Protract(moves Forward) the Scapula (moves downward) 1.P.MI. 2.S.A.
1.PECTORALIS MINOR-under pec. major & ribs3,4,&5 protraction,depression,downward rotation 2.SERRATUS ANTERIOR-upper lateral side of rib cage (deep)protraction,upper rotation
Name the 3 Upward rotators 1.U.TR 2.L.TR 3.S.A
Name the 2 Scaula Depressor muscles(moves downward) 1.L. TR 2.P.MI.
Name the 2 Scapula Retractors:(pulls shoulders towards each other) 1.M. TR 2.RHM
1.Middle Trapezius 2.RHOMBOIDS- under Trapezius between the 2 Scapulae
Name the 4 Shoulder (Humerus)Flexors (Bending movement) 1.D 2.P.M. 3.CB 4.B.B.
1.DELTOID-(anterior portion)over lateral aspect of the shoulder region. 2.PECTORALIS MAJOR (clavicular head)serior portion of the anterior chest. 3.CORACOBRACHIALIS-anterior armpit area 4.BICEPTS BRACHII-(SHORT HEAD)-anterior humerus
Name the 7 Shoulder Extensors(straighteners) 1.L.D. 2.T.MA 3.T.MI. 4.D 5.IS 6.P.M 7.TR. B.
1.LATISSIMUS DORSI-Middle to lower region of the back. 2.TERES MAJOR-below the Infraspinatus 3.TERES MINOR-between the Infraspinatus & Tres Major. 4.DELTOID-(posterial head)laterl postreal aspect of the shoulder. 5.INFRASPINATUS-below the spine of the Sacpula 6.PECTORALIS MAJOR-(Sternal head)superior portion of the anterior chest. 7.TRICEPS BRACHII-(Long head)posterior humerus
Name the 5 Medial Rotators of the Shoulder: 1.D 2.P.MA. 3.S. 4.T.M. 5.L.D.
1.DELTOID(Anterior portion)lateral portion of Shoulder 2.PECTORALIS MAJOR-supeior portion of anterior chest. 3.SUBSCAPULARIS-between the Scaula & Rib Cage. 4.TERES MAJOR-below the Infraspinatus 5.LATISSIMUS DORSI-middle to lower region of the back.
Name the 2 Shoulder Abductors. 1.D-M 2.S
1.DELTOID-(middle portion)lateral aspect of the Shoulder. 2.SUPRASPINATUS-above the spine of the Scapula
Name the 3 Rear- Horizontal Shoulder Abductors: 1.D-P 2.T.MI 3.I.
1.DELTIOD(Posterior)lateral aspect of the Shoulder. 2.TERES MINOR-between the Infraspinatus & Teres Major. 3.INFRASPINATUS-below the spine of the Scapula
Name the 3 Lateral Rotators of the Shoulder: 1.I 2.T.MA 3.D-P
1.INFRASPINATUS-below the spine of the Scapula 2.TERES MAJOR-below the Infraspinatus 3.DELTOID-(Posterior portion)lateral postrial aspect of the Shoulder
Name the 3 Horizontal(rear)Shoulder Adductors 1.P. MA. 2.CB 3.D-A
1.PECTORALIS-superior portion of the Anterior chest. 2.CORACOBRACHALIS-anterior armpit region. 3.DELTOID-(Anterior portion)lateral anterior potion of the shoulder
Name the 4 Shoulder Adductors: 1.P. MA 2.CB 3.L.D 4T.MA
1.PECTORALIS MAJOR-Superior portion of the Anterior chest. 2.CORACOBRACHIALIS-Anterior armpit region. 3.LATISSIMUS DORSI-middle to lower region of the back. 4.TERES MAJOR-below the infraspinatus
Nname the 3 Horizontal Shoulder Abductors- 1.D-P 2.T. MI. 3.IN
1.DELTOID-Posterior lateral aspect of the Shoulder 2.TERES MINOR-between the Infraspinatus & Teres Major 3.INFRASPINATUS-below the spine of the Scapula
Name the 3 Shouldder Lateral Rotators- 1.IN 2.T. MI 3.D-P
1.INFRASPINATUS-below the spine of the Scaupla 2.TERES MINOR-between the Infraspinatus & Teres Major. 3.DELTOID-Posterior-posterior Lateral portion off the Shoulder
Name the 4 Shoulder ADDUCTORS 1.P. M 2.COR 3.L. D. 4.T. M.
1.PECTORALIS MAJOR-superior portion of the Anterior chest 2.CORACOBRACHALIS-anterior arpit region 3.LATISSIMUS DORSI-superficial middle to lower portion of the back 4.TERES MAJOR-below the Infraspinatus muscle
Name the 3 Shoulder ABDUCTORS: 1.P. M. 2.COR 3.D-A
1.PECTORALIS MAJOR-superior portion off the Anterior chest 2.CORACOBRACHALIS-Anterior Armpit region 3.DELTOID-Anterior portion-Anterior Lateral aspect off the Shoulder region
Name the 4 Elbow Flexors(BENDING): 1.B. B. 2.B. 3.BR. 4.PR. T.
1.BICEPS BRACHII-Anterior Humerus (forearm) 2.BRACHALIS-Lower Lateral Humerus (forearm) 3.BRACHOIRADIALIS-Lateral forearm(thumb side) 4.PRONATOR TERES-Anteror Proximal Fforearm(deep)
Name the 2 Forearm Supinators(rolling forearm so palm faces Anteriorly) 1.B. B. 2.SU
1.BICEPS BRACHII-Anterior Humerous 2.SUPINATOR-Lateral aspect of the elbow (deep)
Name the 2 Elbow Extensors- 1.TR. B. 2.ANC.
1.TRICEPS BRACHII-posterior humerus (forearm) 2.ANCONEUS-posteriorolateral aspect of the Elbow
Name the 2 Elbow Pronators(rolling forearm so palm faces poertioraly) 1.PR. T. 2.PR. QUAD.
1.PRONATOR TERES-Anterior proximal forearm (deep) 2.PRONATOR QUADRATUS-Proximal to wrist
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