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This is defined as hair loss.
Alopecia
This is defined as bluish discoloration from poor oxygenation.
Cyanosis
Define Ecchymosis.
Raised bluish or yellowish vascular lesions (bruises)
Define Edema
Accumulation of fluid in body tissue.
What is Erythema
A reddening of the skin
What does the sternocleidomastoid do?
Flexes and rotates head.
What does the Trapezius do?
Raises scapula (shoulder blade) as when you shrug your shoulders or pull head backwards.
What are the four palpable nodes on the neck??
Head, Neck, Arms and axilla
Where is the greatest supply of lymph nodes located.
In the head and neck.
What does a lymph node feel like if it is palpable?
Movable, discrete, soft, and non tender
What are the characteristics of a tension headache?
Tend to be occipital or frontal or with bandlike tightness. Pain is viselike.
What are the characteristics of a migraine?
Vascular.  Tend to be supraorbitol, retroorbital, or frontotemporal.  Pain is typically throbbing and severe. Occur about 2 times per month, each lasting 1-3 days
In which situation do you use the bell of a stethoscope?
It has a deep hollow cup like shape.  It is best for soft, low-pitched sounds such as extra heart sounds or murmurs.
What are the characteristics of a cluster headache?
Vascular.  Produce pain around the eye, temple, forehead and cheek.  Pain is excruciating and always unilateral and always on the same side of the head.  1-2 per day each lasting 1/2 to 2 hours for 1-2 months then can go in to complete remission for years.
What is the next step after palpating a node?
Note their location, size, shape, delimitation, mobility, consistency, and tenderness.
These nodes are often palpable in healthy persons, although this palpability decreases with age.
Cervical Node
This is a soft, pulsatile, whooshing, blowing sound heard best with the bell of the stethoscope.
bruit
this glasslike quality decreases the len's ability to change shape to acommodate for near vision; this condition is termed?
presbyopia
These type of nodes are hard, unilateral, nontender, and fixed.
Cancerous nodes
What two sinuses are palpable?
Frontal, Maxillary
Usually you cannot palpate the normal human ________.  If the person has a long thin neck, you sometimes with feel the isthmus over the tracheal rings.
Thyroid
True or False:



When palpating the trachea, the sternal notch should be symmetrical on both sides?
True.



If the trachea is not centered, it could be caused by a shift in the position of the lungs, a pneumothorax or a aortic aneurysm.
How do you check for bruits?
Find the carotid artery, palpate one side at a time while client holds breath.  Then auscualtate for "bruits" using the BELL of the stethoscope.
This is the normal constriction of the pupils when bright light shines on the retina.
The pupillary light reflex
When one eye is exposed to bright light a ____________  occurs (constriction of the pupil) as well as a ____________ (simultaneous constriction of the other pupil).
1. Direct Light reflex
2. Consensual light reflex
A reflex directing eye towards an object attracting that person's attention; impaired by drugs, alcohol, fatigue.
Fixation
Convergence of the axes of the eyeballs with constriction of the pupils; adapts eyes for near vision.
Accommodation
What does PERRLA stand for?
Pupils equally round react to light accommodation.
This is the condition in which a person's pupils are two different sizes.
Anisocoria
What test is used for central visual acuity?
Snellan Chart.
The width of the rubber bladder of the bp cuff should be ______ the size of the arm circumference of the patient?
40%
What would give a false high blood pressure reading?
Cuff to small
How can you tell if a person of color has cyanosis?
Their skin becomes gray and ashen.
If a lesion is found on inspection you need to note:
1. color
2. elevation
3. pattern or shape
4. size
5. location
6. exudate (color, odor)
In aging adults the ___________ are more prominent.
Facial orbital bones.
What is the normal pathway of hearing?
Air conduction.
What can impact the hearing in the elderly?
Buildup of cerumen (earwax)
What does the term conductive mean in regards to the ear?
Mechanical dysfunction of ex- or mid-ear
Sensorineural is defined as?
Pathology of the inner ear
Define Equilibirum.
Inner ear labyrinth signals brain about body's position.
What is Vertigo?
Staggering gait and a strong, spinning, whirling sensation.
increased growth of coarse hair (mostly face/trunk)
hirsuitism
patches of pale, itchy wheals in erythematous area
urticaria (hives)
dry skin usually from decreased activity of sebaceous/ sweat glands
xerosis
unilateral edema is a sign of?
a local or peripheral cause
What is the largest gland in the mouth, that lies within the cheeks in front of the ear extending from the zygomatic arch down to the angle of the jaw?
Parotid
bilateral edema is a sign of?
a central problem (eg heart failure, kidney failure)
skin self examination ABCDE rules are?
A- asymmetry
B- border (poorly defined)
C- color (variation of one or color)
D- diameter
E- elevation and enlargement
cerumen = ________ = buildup can cause imparement of __________ in elderly
ear wax; hearing
This is the fibrous protective white covering of the eye..
Sclera
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