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What are the four major macro molecules?
Nucleic Acid, Lipids, Protiens, and Carbs
Give the Fundamental Unit and an example of Nucleic Acid.
Nucleotides, DNA/RNA
Give the Fundamental Unit and an example of Lipids.
Carboxylic Acid, Phospholipid.
Give the fundamental unit and an example of Protien.
Amino acid, Enzymes
Give the fundamental unit and an example of Carbohydrates.
Monosaccharide, Glygogen
What are morphs?
When genetic variation varies so differently within the same species an organism could be mis-identified.
Explain Gemone mutations.
When an entire chromosome is either added or deleted. An example is Down Syndrome.
Describe the model organism that Gregor Mendel used and the seven traits that he studied.
Flowering Pea Plants. Height, flower color, flower position, seed color, seed shape, pod color, and pod shape.
Explain Mendel’s law of segregation.
Two copies of a gene segregate from each other during transmission from parent to offspring.
Explain Mendel’s law of independent assortment.
Two different genes will randomly assort thier alleles during the formation of haploid cells.
When is there twice as many chromosomes in the cell?
During S phase of mitosis and S1 in Meiosis
wild-type alleles
These typically encode proteins that
Function normally
Are made in the right amounts
mutant alleles
These tend to be rare in natural populations
They are likely to cause a reduction in the amount or function of the encoded protein
Such mutant alleles are often inherited in a recessive fashion
Essential genes
The absence of their protein product leads to a lethal phenotype
It is estimated that about 1/3 of all genes are essential for survival
Nonessential genes
those not absolutely required for survival
lethal allele
is one that has the potential to cause the death of an organism
These alleles are typically the result of mutations in essential genes
They are usually inherited in a recessive manner
Conditional lethal alleles
may kill an organism only when certain environmental conditions prevail
Temperature-sensitive (ts) lethals
Semilethal alleles
Kill some individuals in a population, not all of them
Environmental factors and other genes may help prevent the detrimental effects of semilethal genes
incomplete dominance
the heterozygote exhibits a phenotype that is intermediate between the corresponding homozygotes
hybrid vigor or heterosis
The hybrids may display traits superior to both parents
Expressivity
the degree to which a trait is expressed
Gene interactions (epistasis)
occur when two or more different genes influence the outcome of a single trait
Mutant screen
isolation of a set of mutants that all show the same phenotype
Complementation
when two independent mutations, when combined, produce the wild type; therefore mutations are within different genes
Non-complementation
when the two independent mutations, when combined, produce the mutant phenotype – i.e. mutations in the same gene
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