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Cognitive Function in Adulthood: Cognitive Abilities that are relatively preserved until old age include ____ and ____
vocabulary, general knowledge
Cognitive Function in Adulthood: Decline from middle adulthood (through death) include attention, psychomotor processing speed, ____, and executive functioning
memory
_____ described several stages of cognitive development ranging from the sensorimotor (birth to 2 years) to the pre-operational (age 3–7) to the concrete operational (ages 7–12) to the formal operational stages from ____ and up
Jean Piaget, 11-12
Key features of Piaget's formal operations stage of development are ability to formulate _____, think abstract/theoretically, think logically, and conceptually
hypothesis
_____ was an educational researcher at Harvard University who studied the cognitive and intellectual development of college-age students through a 15-year study of students at Harvard and Radcliffe in the 1950s and 1960s. His work allowed for a more fine-grained account of post-adolescent cognitive development compared to Piaget.
William Perry
William Perry defined 9 “______” in cognitive development, theorizing that individuals may stand in one or more of them at any given time, allowing for a more flexible conceptualization than rigid stages (ie Piaget)
positions
In Perry's position of ____, knowledge and morality assumed to have dualistic structure. Things are right/wrong,true/false, good/bad. Students see teachers as authority figures who impart correct answers and "the truth." Role of the student is ____ of true answers.
duality, unquestioning recipient
In Perry's position of ___, truth is relative to a frame of reference rather than absolute. Learners recognize things can only be said to be right or wrong within a specific context and if context changes, the “truth” may change. Instructors act as expert guides.
multiplicity
In Perry's position of ___, armed with the notion that knowledge is relative, the learner takes personal responsibility for learning and makes a ____ to this over time.
commitment
In Erikson's stage of ____, from ____ years, individuals face the developmental task of forming intimate relationships with others, particularly a spouse or partner.
Intimacy vs Isolation, 18-35
In Erikson's stage of ____, from ____ years, a chief concern is to assist the younger generation in developing and leading useful lives, particularly via parenting. Also focus on productivity in career and contribution to society
Generativity vs. Self absorption / Stagnation, 36–65
______, a psychoanalyst at the Harvard’s Brigham & Women’s Hospital, made contributions to understanding of adult psychological development. In longitudinal study of 800 boys growing to adulthood, he explored adaptation to stress and defense mechanisms.
George Vaillant
Vaillant elaborated on Anna Freud’s description of defenses and described an empirically-derived multi-level “hierarchy” of defenses ranging from the ___ to ___ to ___ to ___.
psychotic, immature, neurotic, mature
Valiant's level of ___ defenses is considered normal for children less than 5, and present in adult dreams and fantasy
psychotic
Psychotic defense mechanisms include ____ projection (Perception of one’s feelings being in another or viceversa), ___ (Disavowal of external or internal reality), and ___ (gross reshaping external reality to suit internal needs)
delusional, denial, distortion
Valiant's level of ___ defenses is common in normal individuals ages 3–15, in character pathology and adult psyhopathology
immature
Immature defense mechanisms include ___ (attribute one’s own unacknowledged feelings to others) ____ fantasy (use of fantasy / autistic retreat to gratify / avoid conflict)
projection, schizoid
Other immature defense mechanisms include ___ (transforming reproach towards others into self - reproach and somatic sx), __ (aggression towards others expressed ineffectively through passivity), & acting out.
hypochondriasis, passive aggression
Valiant's level of ___ defenses is present in healthy individuals age 3–90, in neurotic disorder, in mastering acute adult stress
neurotic
Neurotic defenses include intellectualization, repression, displacement, dissociation and ____ (Behavior in diametrical opposition to unacceptable instinctual impulse)
reaction formation
Valiant's level of ___ defenses is common in healthy individuals from ages 12 to 90. Successful integration of reality, interpersonal relations, private feelings
mature
Mature defenses include altruism, humor, anticipation, __ (conscious decision to postpone attention to conscious impulse or conflict), ___ (indirect expression of instincts w/o adverse consequences or marked loss of pleasure)
suppression, sublimation
____ developed a three-level, six-stage moral development schema into adulthood
Lawrence Kohlberg
In Kohlberg's ___ moral level, obedience/punishment is common in early childhood, orientation is based on consequences to self (no sense of other)
pre-conventional
In Kohlberg's ___ moral level, individualism and morals judged based on benefit to self. Others serve self-interest.
pre-conventional
In Kohlberg's ___ moral level,societal role and moral behavior based on higher moral precepts of society. Interpersonal orientation to others important. Conformity and approval are important.
conventional
In Kohlberg's ___ moral level, law and maintenance of obedience to laws, societal conventions in order to maintain order. Focus on social order orientation adherence vs. culpability for violating laws. Fundamentalist beliefs may fit here
conventional
In Kohlberg's ___ moral level, social contract and strong sense of individual within larger society. Accomodates individual rights orientation individual differences. Laws ultimately serve the individual or groups of Adulthood individuals.
Post-Conventional
In Kohlberg's ___ moral level, justice orientation based on universal justice supersedes laws. Universal ethical principles basic tenet is respect for the dignity of all people as individuals.
Post-Conventional
____ was a psychologist who trained at the University of Wisconsin with Harry Harlow, studying chimp behavior. His primary contribution to human development was defining a “Hierarchy of Needs."
Abraham Maslow
Maslow's hierarchy of needs include (from basic to highly involved) ____, ____, ____, ____, _____
Phsyiological needs, need for safety, need for love and belonging, need for esteem, self-actualization
Self-Actualization (coined by _____), entails the highest order of development. ___ is possible in this stage, consisting of metaphysical awareness.
Kurt Goldstein, transcendence
Maslow later defined two other higher order needs above self-actualization: ____ and ____ needs.
cognitive, aesthetic
The first four of Maslow's needs are called ____ needs, where lack of fulfillment leads to anxiety or panic, fulfillment motivates toward higher needs.
deficiency
Maslow's higher needs are considered ___ needs. When fulfilled they are self-perpetuating. Lack of fulfillment leads to frustration.
growth
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