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How are decongestants used?
Decongestants are used to relieve nasal congestion that accompanies allergies and upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). These drugs may also be used as additional therapy for middle ear infections and to decrease congestion around the eustachian tubes.
How are Expectorants used?
Expectorants are agents that decrease the thickness of respiratory secretions and aid in their removal. Expectorants are used to treat symptoms of productive cough. These products may be useful in chronic respiratory disease when thick mucus is a complication.
How are antitussives used?
Drugs used to relieve coughing are called antitussives. These drugs may either (1) act centrally on the cough center in the brain, (2) act peripherally by anesthetizing stretch receptors in the respiratory tract, or (3) act locally, primarily by soothing irritated areas in the throat.
What nursing intervention should be used for a patient with thick mucus?
Are there needs for hydration? Is the patient able to take water by mouth, or are they receiving intravenous fluid? Diagnose any lack of knowledge. The patient should use a humidifier and drink at least 2 quarts of water daily while taking an expectorant. These actions will help get the mucus out.
When are decongestants contraindicated?
Use of decongestants at the same time as high doses of digitalis or use of other drugs that may sensitize the heart to dysrhythmias should be avoided because anginal pain may result when there is coronary insufficiency.
What asthma medication is used for prophylactic treatment?
Cromolyn and nedocromil sodium, a drug with actions similar to those of cromolyn, are used to manage bronchial asthma in some patients.
What is the medication theophylline?
Popular and effective drug in management of bronchial constriction and spasm; timed-release capsules slowly provide medication for 8-12 hr or 12-24 hr. The efficacy is directly related to the blood levels achieved from its administration. The desired therapeutic range is considered to be 10 to 20 mcg per milliliter of serum.
What are the adverse reactions to sympathomemetics? These agents dilate the bronchi through their action on beta-adrenergic receptors. They are also known as adrenergic stimulants.
Adverse reactions include dysrhythmias (irregular heartbeats), hypotension, tachycardia, anorexia, anxiety, headache, insomnia, nausea, pallor, perspiration, polyuria (excretion of a large amount of urine), restlessness, vomiting, weakness, and urinary hesitancy and retention. These symptoms get worse if there is an overdosage.
What are the adverse reactions to xanthine derivatives?
dysrhythmias, flushing, marked hypotension, tachycardia, headache, insomnia, restlessness, diarrhea, epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, and rash.
What are the adverse reactions to Cromolyn sodium? This agent helps treat asthma by slowing down the destruction of sensitized mast cells.
Adverse reactions include dizziness, headache, vertigo, rash, nausea, bad taste in the mouth, throat irritation, damage to teeth, dysuria, urinary frequency, bronchospasm, cough, nasal congestion, wheezing, anaphylaxis, tearing of eyes, and swollen parotid glands. Because these drugs are rapidly eliminated from the body, they are nontoxic, except to those who have a hypersensitivity to the drug.
What important teaching information do expectorants, antitussives,decongestants, and bronchodilators all have in common?
Why are intranasal steroids used?
Topical intranasal steroids are used to treat allergic, mechanical, or chemically induced local nasal inflammation or nasal polyps only when the more usual treatment has been tried and found to not work.
What are the precautions for using topical intranasal steroids?
The patient receiving topical intranasal steroids should not be given smallpox vaccination or immunizations.The patient should not use these drugs if an infection is present. Patients should notify the nurse, physician, or other health care provider if an infection develops while taking this drug. In the patient with latent tuberculosis or reactivated tuberculosis, close observation and possible chemoprophylaxis may be indicated. The effects of these drugs are increased in patients with hypothyroidism and cirrhosis.
What are the antihistamine precautions for the patient with hypertension?
What are anticoagulants used for?
Anticoagulant therapy is used to prevent new clot formation or to stop existing clots from growing in size.
What are the signs of anticoagulants overdose?
Early signs of overdosage or internal bleeding include bleeding from gums while brushing teeth, excessive bleeding or oozing from cuts, unexplained bruising or nosebleeds, and unusually heavy or unexpected menses in women. These are the “must know” symptoms that suggest the patient needs prompt attention.
What are the drug interactions with anticoagulants?
Other anticoagulants, methimazole, and propylthiouracil increase the anticoagulant effect of heparin. Antihistamines, digitalis, nicotine, and tetracycline decrease the anticoagulant effect of heparin. ASA, coumarin-derivative anticoagulants, dextran, NSAIDs, and other selected drugs increase the risk of bleeding and hemorrhage in a patient receiving heparin.
What are the patient teaching points for anticoagulants?
The patient should take the oral medication only as directed, regular INR time or coagulation blood tests, do not take other medications without checking with the nurse, physician, or other health care provider; this includes aspirin or any over-the-counter (OTC) medicines,inform all nurses, physicians, dentists, podiatrists, and other health care providers about being on anticoagulant therapy,electric razor should be used when possible, medic alert bracelet,avoid alcohol, eat a normal, balanced diet, but avoid eating excessive amounts of foods high in vitamin K (tomatoes, onions, dark leafy greens, bananas, or fish)
What lab test is used for the patient taking heparin?
PT and aPTT (Partial Thromboplastin Time and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time)
What are the therapeutic ranges for INR and APTT (PPT)?
The goal of prolonging the PT to 1.5 to 2.5 times the normal has largely been replaced by specific INR goal recommendations for each clinical indication. The typical INR goal is 2.0 to 3.0, except in mechanical cardiac valve replacement, in which a higher INR is necessary to prevent clot formation.
What is heparin?
Heparin is the anticoagulant of choice when an immediate effect is needed.
What is the Heparin antidote?
Protamine sulfate is a strongly basic (alkaline) protein that acts as a heparin antagonist to neutralize (reverse) the actions of heparin.
What is coumadin?
Low-intensity anticoagulant Coumadin therapy (prothrombin time [PT] ratio between 1.2 and 1.5) greatly decreases the risk of stroke from nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation and has few side effects.
What are thrombolytic agents and how are they used?
Clot busters. Thrombolytic agents are used in acute myocardial infarction for lysis of thrombi blocking coronary arteries, in acute pulmonary emboli for clot lysis when the patient is hemodynamically unstable, and in acute ischemic stroke and acute arterial occlusion.
Patient on anticoagulant therapy should avoid what vitamin?
vitamin K (tomatoes, onions, dark leafy greens, bananas, or fish).
Which classification of medication would a patient recovering from bronchitis with thick mucus take?
Expectorant
Which class of drugs prevent new clots from forming?
Anticoagulants
What is the therapeutic range for coumadin?
2-3 for INR
Will antihistimines increase or decrease B/P?
increase
What are bleeding gums an early sign of?
coumadin overdose
Cromolyn and nedocromil sodium, have no antihistaminic, antiinflammatory, or bronchodilator activity, so they are effective only for what?
prophylaxis (prevention of or protection against disease) and should not be used in an acute attack of asthma
Can Heparin be administered as an IM injection?
NO
Is Aspirin considered an antiplatelet?
Yes
What type of effect do NSAIDs have on anticoagulants?
They increses the effect
Drugs to treat asthma??
All of the above
Antihistamine side effects?
answer will be all of the above
what should patient report when taking anticoagulants?
bruising and dark stools
What can Xanthines cause?
Infection and Bronchospasms
What is the lab test for coumadin?
PT (Prothrombin Time)
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