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Of all programming data, what are the two primary factors that determine the size and configuration of the interior space?
1. Required area
2. Adjacencies
(+ support spaces: corridors, closets, toilet rooms, mech areas)
If a client already has an idea of the net area they will need, where do those numbers typically come from?
1. The client's expertise
2. Based on corporate space standards
3. Based on what currently exists
If the interior designer needs to determine the net area a client will need, what are the 3 methods to do so?
1. Based on the number of people that must be accommodated
2. Based on an object or piece of equipment
3. Based on a specific activity that has its own clearly specified space needs (ie, a court room; sports arena)
How are space needs determined based on the number of people that must be accommodated?
Multiply the area one person needs by the total number of people in the same area.
Through experience and detailed analysis, general guidelines for space requirements (benchmarks) for one person engaged in various activities have been developed (these numbers include circulation around the person).
What are 4 common types of workflow? Why is a client's workflow method important to document?
1. Linear
2. Central
3. Departmental
4. Network
Because each type of business process may fit better in some spaces than others.
Workflow can be analyzed with respect to the existing building using what 7 criteria?
1. points of public entry
2. points of service entry
3. spaces with/without views
4. size and shape of space
5. locations of plumbing & other building services
6. interference with building structure
7. available ceiling height
What sorts of code items should be included in a preliminary code checklist?
The code requirements that affect the overall planning of the space:
Occupancy groups/loads
Number/locations of exits required
Required exit/corridor widths & ratings
Once a preliminary space plan is selected, what sorts of code items should be included in a more detailed code checklist?
Construction of fire-rated corridors
Locations of exit signs, fire extinguishers, sprinklers, smoke detectors, emergency lighting
Hardward requirements
Finishes requirements
Toilet room accessories
All accessibility issues that relate to the broad issues of space planning should have been incorporated into the design prior to what phase?
Design development
What sorts of accessibility issues should be included in a preliminary checklist?
Widths of accessible routes
Door sizes & maneuvering clearances
Ramp locations & sizes
Toilet room layout
As the space plan is finalized and DD begins, what sorts of accessibility issues should be evaluated?
Surfaces of accessible routes
Toilet room design details
DF mounting
Stair design details
Protruding objects
Amount of seating & other elements governed by scoping provisions
What are some of the rules, regulations and standards the interior designer might run into on a leased space?
Rentable-usable ratio
Building standard allowances on partitions, doors, light fixtures, etc.
Building standard finishes/window coverings
Signage regulations
Security requirements
Regulations for service access and used of fright elevator
What is a design concept (as opposed to a programmatic concept)?
A general idea of how a design problem will be approached.
Takes into account the existing space within which the designer must work, its size, shape, entry points, windows, and other fixed elements.
Still a broad-brush approach that leaves some flexibility in deciding the details.
The statement is concise and defines the essense of the design.
What are 8 components that may be incorporated into a design concept?
1. Plan arrangement
2. Space relationships
3. Components of Interior Design (walls, ceilings, doors, floors, steps, glazing)
4. Details
5. Lighting & color
6. Materials
7. Furniture
8. Accessories
What are 6 conceptual plan arrangements that can be used either alone or juxtaposed in a design concept?
1. Open (no walls)
2. Linear
3. Axial
4. Centralized
5. Grid
6. Clustered
When is an open plan arrangement typically used?
When a display of hierarchy through separate spaces is not wanted.
Where function requires a free flow of people, materials, or ideas.
Where individual functional areas change frequently.
When is a linear plan arrangement typically used?
As an efficient way to connect many different types and sizes of spaces with a circulation corridor and to provide for access to exits.
To separage groups of enclosed spaces with a large open space.
When is an axial plan arrangement typically used?
When spaces are aligned on a significant feature or features; the space creating the axis is important, more than just a corridor.
Combines features of both a centralized and a linear concept.
When is a centralized plan arrangement typically used?
When several areas need access to one centralized hub.
It is nondirectional and focuses attention on the central space which then has a symbolic or functional importance.
When is a grid plan arrangement typically used?
To organize many different types and sizes of spaces while maintaining an overall regularity and pattern.
When is a clustered plan arrangement typically used?
When a variety of sizes and shapes of spaces need to be accommodated.
When expansion or change is expected.
Often organized about an axis or central space to avoid wayfinding problems.
What are 4 space relationships that can be incorporated into a design concept?
1. Adjacent spaces (separated by wall, floor change, furniture, etc.)
2. Overlapping spaces (the common space belongs to both spaces to some degree)
3. Spaces sharing a common space (the common space has its own identity)
4. A space within another space (ie a private office within an open plan)
How can the components of interior design (walls, ceilings, floors, steps, doors, glazing) be used to solve clients' functional requirements as well as meet their emotional and psychological needs?
View the elements on a conceptual basis:
Walls: vertical planes, space-defining elements.
Ceilings: minor changes in height can define space, direct movement, affect the room's scale
Floors: establish stability & a fixed reference plane; define space, direct movement
Steps/Ramps: Create vertical movement, define space
Doors: celebrate movement and transition; set status
Glazing: can establish connection and separation simultaneously
What are the 3 purposes of details in a design?
1. Resolve problems of connection and transition
2. Solve functional problems
3. Enhance the intent of the overall design concept.
How is lighting incorporated into a design concept?
Lighting can emphasize, obscure, create mood, add interest, shape space, provide variability in the environment, affect the appearance of colors and materials.
What are the 2 ways materials are used in a design concept?
1. Functional: finish, concealment, protection, sound modulation, light reflectance, fire resistance
2. Aesthetic: convey meaning, denote status, create style, symbolize ideals, add to the overall look of a space.
What are the 2 ways furniture is used in a design concept?
1. Satisfy the client's basic functional needs and budget.
2. Contribute to the overall design: light/heavy, soft/hard, small/large, colorful/neutral, similar to/contrasted with the architecture of the space.
How are accessories incorporated into a design concept?
Enhance the design intent of the space, complementing it while not dominating it.
What are 3 methods for documenting a client's adjacency requirements?
1. Adjacency matrix
2. Adjacency or bubble diagram
3. Stacking diagram
Define space planning.
The process used to translate programmatic needs and broad design concepts into a physical plan of the space by organizing major rooms and areas, determinging circulation systems, and laying out furniture (no materials, finishes, colors, accessories)
What are 6 aspects of existing conditions that may impact the space plan?
1. Relationship to surrounding areas (entrance, elevator lobbies, exits, corridors, etc.)
2. Size of the existing space
4. Special features (unique historical elements, atriums, etc)
5. Structural considerations (existing columns & loadbearing walls, bearing capacity of the floor)
6. Plumbing (vertical stacks at core and wet columns)
What are the 4 most common ways of organizing a space plan?
1. Linear organization (typical layout of private offices; becomes a radial organization when more than one linear element extends from a central point)
2. Axial organization (featured termination at axis end or axes are a major design element)
3. Grid system (open plan workstations and restaurant tables)
4. Central organization (formal; hotel lobby)
How is circulation important in the space plan?
1. One of the primary ways of organizing a room, an open space, or an entire project
2. Can create efficient organization of space.
3. Can provide people with their strongest orientation within an environment.
4. Help maintain adjacencies.
5. Different sizes and types help create a heirarchy of paths.
6. Relates to the organizational pattern of a project but does not have to mimic it.
In space planning, what should be determined first, space location based on adjacency or main circulation paths?
Main circulation paths.
What are the 3 basic circulation patterns that can be applied to both furniture layout in a room and an entire facility?
1. Linear dumbbell layout (simplest and very flexible, typ. double loaded corridor)
2. Doughnut configuration (very efficient, provides a double-loaded corridor and automatically makes a continuous exitway)
3. Radial layout (oriented on one major space with paths extending from this central area)
What are the three steps involved in furniture layout?
1. Determine the types and number of individual pieces.
2. Consider the space between the pieces and their orientations to each other.
3. Think about the general access to the grouping and its relationship to existing elements within the room.
What are the 8 major code items the space plan should be reviewed for?
1. Required number of exits
2. Required separation of exits (if 2+ are required)
3. Exit doors 3 ft wide min & swing in direction of travel
4. Doors don't encroach more than 7" into the exit space when fully open
5. Corridors are at least 36" wide for residential, 44" wide for commercial (60" is best for accessibility)
6. Dead-end corridors are avoided
7. Total corridor length is minimized with an efficient layout)
8. Accessiblity clearances are met (18" on pull side and 12" on push side of door)
What are 5 important design considerations for the space plan?
1. Maintain adjacencies
2. Public versus private spaces (use barriers, distance, sequencing, etc)
3. Enclosed versus open spaces (open encourages communication and reduces cost by making wall construction unnecessary)
4. Daylighting & views
5. Sustainability (plan space for recycling collection/storage, reuse existing partitions, ceilings, etc, plan bike storage & shower facilities)
At what point should the designer get the designers approval:
design concept statement
adjacency matrix
bubble diagram/stacking diagram
block diagram
DD drawings
After every step.
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