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Identify the six classes of nutrients
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Fats
Vitamins
Minerals
Water
Essential nutrients
nutrients a person must obtain from food because the body cannot make them for itself in sufficient quantities to meet physiological needs
Inorganic
does not contain carbon or pertaining to living things
Energy yielding nutrients
nutrients that break down to yield energy the body can use
Nutrients supported by food
Essential Nutrients
Identify inorganic nutrents
Minerals and water
Identify energy yielding nutrients
carbohydrates
protein
fats
Define Organic and Identify the four organic nutrients
carbon containing
Carbohydrates
Fats
Proteins
Vitamins
Define Calories
units by which energy is measured;
expressed in 1,000 calorie metric units known as kilocalories
Identify Energy Yields of:
Proteins
Carbohydrates
Fats
Alcohol
Proteins=4 kcal/g
Carbohydrates=4 kcal/g
Fats=9 kcal/g
alcohol=7 kcal/g
Calculate available energy from food . . .
(#g of protein)x4=#kcal
(#g of carbs) x 4 =#kcal
(#g of fats) x 9 = #kcal
Total of Sum =  # kcal
Calculate the % of Kcal of a nutrient . . .
(#kcal of nutrient)
(Total Kcal of food)

Round to 2 decimal spts

Multiply by 100
Energy use in the body
Primary: Used to buildnew compounds and fuel metabolic & physical processes

Secondary: Excesses are arranged into storage compounds, primarily body fat, and put way for later use
DRI
Dietary Reference Intakes

Set of values for the dietary nutrient intakes of healthy ppl in the US & Canada

Used for planning and assessing diets
RDA
Recommended Dietary Allowances

Set of values reflecting the average daily amts of nutrients considered adequate to mee the known nurient needs of practically all healthy people in a particular life stage & gender group.

Goal for dietary intake for individuals.
AI
Adequate intakes

Set of values that are used as guides for nutrient intakes when scientific evidence is insufficient to determine RDA

Set goals for individuals
requirement
lowest continuing intake of a nutrient that will maintain a specified criterion of adequacy.
EAR
Estimated Average Requirements

Establish average requirements for given life stage and gender groups

Used in nutrition research and policy making

Basis on which RDA values are set
UL
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels

Upper limits of intake for nutrients posing a hazard when consumed in excess
EER
Estimated Energy Requirement

Average dietary intake  that maintains energy balance in a healthy person of a defined age, gender, and weght, and physical activity level

Unlike vitamins & minerals, not designed to be generous 
AMDR
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges

Healthy ranges of intake for the energy-yielding nutrients that provide adequate energy and nutrients and reduce the risk of chronic disease

Nutrients
Substances derived from food and used by the body for:

energy
structural material
Regulating agents to promote growth
maintenance
repair

Metabolism
Chemical reaction that releases energy, breaks down compounds, and makes new compounds.
Transport of Nutrients

Vascular System
Travels by arteries & capillaries to reach every cell

Blood then travels to veins, to the capillaries in the liver, to veins, to the heart.
Transport of Nutrients

Lymphatic System
One way route for fluids to travel from tissue to blood.

- Fat soluble nutrients go through this way

The Kidneys
- Filter waste products 24/7
- Reabsorb needed nutrient
- Cells produce compounds to regulate BP
- Maintains bones by converting a compound to Vit. D

BMR
Basal Metabolic Rate
Energy needed at the lowest level of cellular function

- influences individual's energy requirement

Factors influencing BMR:
Age
Height
Growth
Body composition
Infection/fever
Stress
Environmental temperature
Starvation/Fasting
Malnutrition
Hormones


Water
Acts as a solvent for nutrients.

Critical component of body cell b/c function depends on a fluid environment.

Composes 60-70% of total body weight.

Problems:
Dehydration
Water overload


Carbohydrates
Main source of energy in the diet

Provides 4 kcals/g

Regulate some aspects of metabolim

Classification:
- Monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, & galactose)
- Disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose)
- Polysaccharide (complex made up of more than 2 monosaccharides)
-Fiber (multiple polysaccharides & nondigestible substances ie. what bran and cereals)


Fats
Storage form of energy

Provides 9 kcal/g

Classification:
- Simple lipids (triglycerides-main for of fat in diet)
- Compound lipids (phospholipids, glycolipids, and lipoproteins)
- Derived lipids (digestive products of fats ie. glycerol, steroids, & fatty acids)

Fatty Acids:
- Saturated (primarily animal source, mostly solid at room temp)
- Polyunsaturated (mostly from plant sources, liq. at room temp)
- Essential (needed in diet, body doesn't manufacture)
- Nonessential (not needed in diet, body manufactures it)


Protein
Essential for synthesis (building) of body tissues in growth, maintenance, and repair.

Provides 4 kcal/g

Classification:
- Essential amino acids (structural units of protein that body can't manufacture)
- Nonesential amin acids (structural units that body can manufacture)
- Polypeptides (long chains of amino acids)


Vitamins
Essential to metabolic processes and acid-base balance.

Fat soluble: Vit. A, D, E, and K

Water soluble: Vit. C and B complex


Vitamin A
(fat-soluble)
Derived from beta carotene
(Retinol, retinal, retinoic acid)

RDA: 700-900 ug

Functions:
- Visual acuiy in dim light
- Formtion and maintenance of skin & mucuos membranes
- Immune Function

Sources:
Liver
Carrots
Egg yolk
Fortified milk

Deficiency S&S:
- night blindness
- rough skin
- bone growth ceases

Excess S&S:
- Anorexia
- loss of hair
- dry skin
- birth defects during pregnancy


Vitamin D
(fat-soluble)
(cholecalciferol, ergosterol)
RDA: 5ug

Sources: sunlight, fortified milk, fish liver oils.

Functions:
- calcium and phosphorus metabolism
- stimulate calcium absorption

Deficiency S&S:
- retarded bone growth
- bone malformation
- Rickets

Excess S&S:
- excessive calcification of bones
- renal calculi
- metastic calcifications of soft tissues
- Hypercalcemia (weakness, vomiting, diarrhea, elctrocardiographic changes)


Vitamin E
(fat-soluble)
(tocopherol)
RDA: 15 ug

Sources: vegetable oils, wheat germ, whole grain products.

Function:
- antioxidant
- protects vitamin A
- hemesynthesis

Deficiency S&S:
- increased RBC hemolysis
- macrocic anemia in premies
- loss of deep tendon reflexes
- changes in balance and coordination
- muscle weakness
- visual disturbances

Excesses S&S:
- relatively nontoxic
- lg. doses can cause fatigue, diarrhea, and enhance action of anticoagulant medications.


Vitamin K
(fat-soluble)
RDA: 90-125 ug

Sources: Dark, green leafy vegetables, synthesized in intestines from gut bacteria

Functions:
- synthesis of certain proteins necessary for blood clotting

Deficiency S&S:
- hemorrhagic disease of newborn
- delayed blood clotting

Excess S&S:
- Homolytic anemia
- liver damage w/ synthetic Vit. K
- Acute IV Vit K toxicity causes chest pain, flushing, and occasionally death

Thiamin (B1)
(water-soluble)
RDA: 1.1-1.2 mg

Sources: Pork, liver, whole and enriched grains, greens

Functions:
- Coenzyme in key reactions that produe energy from glucose

Deficiency S&S:
Beriberi
- GI = indigestion, appetite loss
- Nervous = nerve irritation and deadening sensations
- CV = cardiac failure, edema

Excess S&S:
- shock


Riboflavin (B2)
(water soluble)
RDA: 1.1-1.3 mg

Source: Milk, organ meats, enriched grains, greens

Functions:
- Carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism

Deficiency S&S:
- dermatitis
- glossitis
- photophobia
- wound aggravation (poor healing)
- cheilosis of mouth

Excess S&S:
- not common


Niacin
(water-soluble)
RDA: 14-16 mg

Sources: Kidney, grains, lean meats, peanuts, and beans

Functions:
- carbohydrate, protein, an fat metabolism

Deficiency S&S:
- Pellagra (weakness, lassitude, loss of appetite)
- dermatitis

Excess S&S:
- vasodilation
- flushing
- itching
- N&V
- liver damage


Folate
RDA: 400 ug

Sources: Green leafy veggies, liver

Functions:
- RNA & DNA synthesis
- formation & maturation of RBCs

Deficiency S&S:
- Macrocytic anemia (fatigue, weakness, pallor)

Excess S&S:
- None known


B12 (cyanocobalamin)
RDA: 2.4 ug

Sources: animal products (organ meats, seafood)

Functions:
- Coenzyme in protein metabolism
- formation of heme portion of hemoglobin

Deficiency S&S:
- pernicious anemia (R/T impaired absorption due to lack of intrinsic factor)

Excess S&S:
- None known


Vitamin C
(water-soluble)
Ascorbic acid
RDA: 75-90 mg (additional 35 mg/day for smokers)

Sources: Citrus fruits, broccoli, green pepper, strawberries, greens

Functions:
- collagen formation
- antioxidant
- enhances iron absorption

Deficiency S&S:
- Scurvy (skin, joint, and gum bleeding; impaired wound healing; drys skin; lower extremity edema; follicular hyperkeratosis; and coiling of body hair

Excess S&S:
- hot flashes
- headache
- nausea
- diarrhea


Minerals
(water-soluble)
Inorganic elements essential to the body as catalysts in biochem. reactions.

Major: Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, S, Cl

Trace: Fe, Cu, I, Mn, Co, Zn, Mo


Calcium (Ca)
Primary Source:
Milk products, green leafy veggies, eggs

Primary Function:
- Bone formation
- Muscle contractures
- Thrombus formation

Deficiency S&S:
- Rickets
- Porous bones
- Tetany


Phosphorus (P)
Primary Source:
Milk, eggs, nuts

Primary Function:
- Bone formation
- Cell permeability

Deficiency S&S:
- Rickets


Fluoride
Primary Source:
Water supply

Primary Function:
Dental health

Deficiency S&S:
Dental caries


Iodine (I)
Primary Source:
- seafood
- iodized salt

Primary function:
- thyroid hormone synthesis

Deficiency S&S:
- goiter


Sodium (Na)
Primary Source:
Table salts, canned veggies, milk, cured meats, and processed foods

Primary Function:
- osmotic pressure
- acid-base balance
- nerve irritability

Deficiency S&S:
Fluid & electrolyte imbalanc


Potassium (K)
Primary Source:
Grains, meats, veggies

Primary Function:
- water balance in cells
- protein synthesis
- hemoglobin synthesis

Deficiency S&S:
- dysrhythmias
- fluid & electrolyte imbalance



Iron (Fe)
Primary Source:
liver, oysters, leafy veggies, apricots

Primary Functions:
- hemoglobin synthesis

Deficiency S&S:
- anemia
- lethargy
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