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Bit (binary digit):
is the basic unit of information in computing and telecommunications.  It is the amount of information stored by a digital device or other physical system that exists in one of two possible distinct states.  (represents data using 1's and 0's) (poweproint 2)
Book definition: represents data using technologies that can be set to one of two states, such as on or off, charged or not charged
a strand of 8 bits together.  The standard grouping in digital electronics. (e.g. characters, words, or sounds)
the process of transforming information into 1's and 0's.
Data vs. information:
Data is the items stored on a digital electronic device; numbers, characters, and sounds.

Information: is the data organized and presented in a manner that provides value to the user: documents, graphs, music, photos, etc.
Computer Network:
a telecommunications network that connects two or more computers for data communications.
  • a computer program running as a service, to serve the needs or requests of other programs ("clients") which may or may not be running on the same computer
  • a physical computer dedicated to running one or more such services, to serve the needs of programs running on other computers on the same network.
  • a software/hardware system such as a database server, file server, mail server, or printer server.
the world's largest public computer network, a network of networks, that provides a vast array of services.
a internet service that provides convenient access to information through hyperlinks.  (the web is not a network, it is information stored on servers)
Artificial Intelligence (AI):
deals with simulating human thought and behavior in computers.
Robotics technology (automation):
involves utilizing computers to control otherwise human actions and activities.
Digital media (or digital multi-media):
movies, television shows, and other video clips downloaded from the Web or transferred to DVD (mobile media)
*Question with only 2 answers is a Boolean*
Digital: works with digits 1 and 0
Analog: works with continuous data like sound waves
Network protocol:
a set of rules that enables all stations to communicate without collision.
Influences of networked economy on business:
  • It leveled the playing field minimizing the competition gap between large and small businesses
  • It reversed the way of communications between customers and businesses
  • Speed made time scarce more than capital
Information system:
a computer system that makes use of hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, people, and procedures to manage and distribute digital information.
System clock:
a "tick" is the smallest unit of time; sometimes called a cycle; this drives the various circuits in the PC; the faster they tick, the more performance you get.
Word size or word length:
a fixed group of bits that handled together by the system; the number of bits
Ubiquitous computing:
a post-desktop model of human-computer interaction in which information processing has been thoroughly integrated into everyday objects and activities.  ("machines that fit the human environment instead of forcing humans to enter theirs.")
Computer vs Human body
The operating system in the computer can be compared to the nervous system in the human body, the processor is compared to the brain, and the system clock can be compared to the heart.
Hardware vs software:
hardware with no software is like a body with no nervous system.  Soft feeds hard.  Your body accepts inputs, human beings are the input devices for computers.  Software are programs that teach the hardware.
protects from hackers.
Why do we digitize media (video, audio, pictures , etc.)?
To be able to store them in digital files in order for the processor to be able to process them.
Digital electronic device and computer:
combines hardware and software to accept the input of data, process and store the data, and produce some useful output.
Smart phones:
have embedded computers.
A docking station is used for what?
To accommodate a smart phone and synchronizes to the computer in order to update the business files.
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange),
EBCDIC, and Unicode:
used to represent characters.
two forms of system storage.
The machine cycle (processing):
Digital convergence:
the trend to merge multiple digital services into one device.
RAM (Random Access Memory):
temporary, or volatile, memory that stores bytes and data and program instructions for the processor to access.
Grid computing:
the combination of computer resources from multiple administrative domains to reach a common goal.
a group of linked computers, working together closely thus in many respects forming a single computer; sometimes connected together to each other through fast local area networks.
Types of technology (3):
magnetic storage technology (HD), optical technology (CD and DVD), and solid state technology (transistor).
Input device vs output device:
Input device: assists in capturing and entering raw data into the computer system. (keyboard, mouse, touch screen, gamepad, digital cameras, scanners, etc.)

Output device: allows you to observe the results of computer processing with one or more of your senses. (LCD tv, printers, plotters, sound systems, etc.)
a set of data processing elements connected in series, so that the output of one element is the input of the next one.  The elements of a pipeline are often executed in parallel or in time-sliced fashion; in that case, some amount of buffer storage is often inserted between elements.
Parallel processing:
the ability to carry out multiple operations or tasks simultaneously.  (Massive parallel processing- many CPU's? also co-processing, dual core and quad core processing)
USB (Universal Serial Bus):
a standard that allows a wide variety of devices to connect to a computer though a common port.  Uses flash memory to provide high capacity storage through the USB port.  (Firewire is high speed communication like USB)
New information system:___
design usually starts with determining the needs of workstations.
RAID (Redundant array of independent disks) storage:
technology that provides increased storage functions and reliability though redundancy.  (computer data storage that can divide and replicate data among multiple disk drives; RAID 0, RAID 1)
SAN (Storage Area Network):
a dedicated storage network which provides access to consolidated, block level storage. (Primarily used to make storage devices accessible to servers so that the devices appear as locally attached to the operating system).
VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol):
delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over IP networks, such as the internet.
System software:
computer software designed to operate the computer hardware and to maintain a platform for running application software.  (BIOS, device firmware, operating system, utility software, etc.)
Computers are used in all aspects of human activity including:
sports, arts, medicine, law enforcement, etc.
Faster processors have enabled computers to:
perform highly sophisticated tasks such as speech recognition.
uses registers to perform calculations and Control unit supervises all the processor work.
Cache memory:
a component that transparently stores data so that future requests for that data can be served faster.
Flash memory:
uses transistors to store data without any needs for moving parts.
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