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What is graphic scale?
The ratio of a measuring unit to the full-size item it represents.
What are the 3 types of scales (instruments) used for architectural, interior design, and engineering drawing?
1. architect's scale: uses fractions of an inch (or multiples of an inch) to represent feet and inches.
2. metric scale: graduated in proportions such as 1:50 (approx. 1/4" scale), 1:10, 1:5 and individual markings are based on millimeter lengths
3. engineer's scale: indicates feet and fractions of a foot and uses scales such as 1" = 40" or 1" = 100 ft
What is the greatest accuracy a manually produced drawing can be drafted to using 1/4"?
1" scale?
Based on the number of graduations that can fit before the 0 on the scale

Read measurements only to the accuracy allowed on the scale.

What scale is typically used for the following?:
1. floor plans
2. elevations
3. enlarged floor plans, complex elevations
4. full wall sections
5. ceiling details, simple cabinet details
6. door, cabinet, furniture details
7. complex cabinet details
8. very complex details
1. 1/8" = 1'-0"
2. 1/4" = 1'-0"
3. 1/2" = 1'-0"
3. 3/4" = 1'-0"
4. 1-1/2" = 1'-0"
5. 3" = 1'-0"
6. 6" = 1'-0" (half full size)
7. 1'-0" = 1'-0" (full size)
What scale should never be used (even though they appear on an architects' scale)?
3/32" & 3/16"
Because they are too close to 1/8" and 1/4"
When scaled drawings are going to be reproduced at a larger or smaller size than the original numeric scale, what sort of scale should be used?
A graphic scale: a band of alternating light and dark portions, each of which represents a certain length.

(Not as accurate as a standard scale)
What are orthographic drawings?
Use orthographic projection so that a 3D object may be represented in 2 dimensions.
What is orthographic projection?
The view of an object seen as though the viewer's line of sight were simultaneously perpendicular to every point on the nearest face of the object.
All pieces are shown in their true relationships with other pieces, and the scale and proportion are the same for multiple views of the same object.
There is no distortion for lines and planes parallel to the plane onto which the view is projected but diagonal lines are foreshortened.
What are the 4 most common types of orthographic drawings?
1. floor plans
2. reflected ceiling plans
3. elevations
4. sections
Orthographic projection is used as the basis for what 3 types of 3D drawings?
1. axonometric drawings
2. elevation obliques
3. one-point sectional perspectives
A floor plan is actually a section cut approximately where?
5 ft AFF, horizontally
What is the definition of a reflected ceiling plan?
An orthographic view of the ceiling of a room or building as though there were a mirror on the floor and a viewer could see through the roof to the ceiling''s reflection. (keeps the RCP at the same orientation as the floor plan)
Describe how the main components of a section are protrayed in a drawing:

1. solid portions

2. voids

3. profile lines (lines separating solids and voids)

4. elements that occur beyond the section cut
1. poche with standard material indications

2. left blank

3. very heavy lines

4. thin lines
What is an axonometric drawing?
A view of an object inclined to the picture plane in such a way that the 3 principal axes are foreshortened.
What are the 3 types of axonometric drawings?
1. isometric drawing: the vertical axis of an object is vertical on the paper and the 2 horizontal axes form angles of 30 degrees.
2. dimetric drawing: two of the principal axes are equally foreshortened
3. trimetric drawing: all 3 of the principal axes are foreshortened
What is an oblique drawing?
A 3D view of an object where one plane of the object is parallel to the picture plane while the third axis is oblique to the picture plane.
The vertical axis of an object is vertical and the 2 horizontal axes form angles of 30 deg & 60 deg. or 45 deg & 45 deg - the floor plan is just rotated; vertical dimensions are usually drawn at 1/2 to 3/4 of the scale to avoid a distorted look
What type of drawings give the most accurate 2D representation of the 3D world? Because they use what principle?
Perspective drawings
The principle of convergence - the apparent diminishing size of objects as they get farther from the eye; things converge to vanishing points
Describe a one-point perspective drawing.
The point of view is perpendicular to one of the planes of the object
All vertical lines are drawn vertically and all lines perpendicular to the line of sight are drawn horizontally.
Lines parallel to the line of sight converge at the single vanishing point that is used to create the drawing.
Describe a two-point perspective drawing.
The point of view is at normal eye level and is not perpendicular to any plane of the object.
2 vanishing points
Describe the following term associated with drawing two-point perspectives:
picture plane

A horizontal line drawn somewhere near the back edge of the plan; the imaginary vertical plane onto which all points of the object are projected to create the 2D image

Describe the following term associated with drawing two-point perspectives:
station point

A point between the plan and the perspective drawing; two lines are extended from the SP to the left and right, parallel to the two major sets of parallel lines of the plan
Where they intersect the picture plane line determines the vanishing points
Describe the following term associated with drawing two-point perspectives: 
horizon line 

A horizontal line drawn at some convenient point below the plan
Assumed to be at eye level, 5'-0"
Describe the following term associated with drawing two-point perspectives: 
left and right vanishing points 

Two vertical lines are drawn from the points where the two lines drawn through the station point intersect the picture plane; the points where these 2 vertical lines cross the horizon line are the vanishing points.
Describe the following term associated with drawing two-point perspectives: 
height line
Where the line of the picture plane touches the plan drawing, a vertical line is projected down to intersect the horizon line; This becomes the true height line and is the only line on the perspective drawing where vertical dimensions can be directly scaled. The horizon line is 5 ft high so the height line is drawn the correct height based on that.
Describe the following term associated with drawing two-point perspectives: 
perspective grids
Shorten the perspective drawing process:
Have horizon lines, vanishing points and distances already marked off.
Used as a template behind the perspective drawing.
Name 4 things that can be studied in a mock-up of a space.
1. see how a design component will look in three dimensions
2. study clearances
3. study human fit
4. study overall scale
How is the design program typically summarized to the client for approval?
In written reports and sometimes with face-to-face, virtual or internet presentations.
What is the main difference between a DD presentation and an earlier presentation to present the program?
The DD presentation is more specific: floor plan dimensions are set
specific products and materials have been selected
furniture is finalized
colors and finishes are finalized
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