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Body Systems
skeletal, muscular, nervous, cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive, sensory, integumentary, endocrine
study of form and structure of organisms “to cut apart”
study of integrated functions of the body and its parts and how they work together (systems, organs, tissues, cells) to maintain homeostasis
Each system of the body does a specific job and can be placed into three groups
structural systems, coordinating systems, visceral systems
Structural systems
provide basic framework and transport system for the body, ex. skeletal and muscular
Coordinating systems
control mechanism of the body, ex nervous and endocrine
Visceral systems
basic functional systems that do general duties of the body, ex. digestive and urinary, gastro intestinal, thoracic cavity. General duties include pump blood, move food etc
Medical terms come from
latin and greek
The four main body plans are
median, sagittal, transverse, horizontal
Median plane
an imaginary plane passing through the body that divides it into two equal halves (left and right)
Sagittal plane
a plane that is parallel to the median plane
Transverse plane
a plane that is at right angle to the median plane (divides the body into cranial/caudal segments)
Horizontal plane
a plane at a right angle to both median and transverse plane (divdes body into dorsal and ventral)
a bony cavity that houses the brain
derived from dorsum or back/towards the back
derived from venter meaning belly/toward the belly
Directional and positional terms
medial, lateral, dorsal, ventral, proximal, distal, prone, supine, palmer, plantar
close to median plane (ex heart is medial to lungs)
away from median plane (ex ribs lateral to lungs)
toward the vertebral column (ex. kidney dorsal to intestines)
away from vertebral column (ex linea alba)
closer to a body part (femur vs tibia/fibula)
away from a body part (ex tiba/fibula vs femur)
dorsal part of body is uppermost (facedown ex dog sleeping)
ventral aspect of body is upper most (belly up ex animal on surgery table)
Linea alba
imaginary line used by surgeons to make an incision because there is less vasculature, healing is quicker and you don’t want to cut nerves, connective tissue, or organs.
nose (closer to the nose within the head)
toward the cranium
latin for tail
closer to the tail
latin for nose
toward the nose
if an animal were to lie down the legs in front of it, this would be like the “palm” on the ground. Caudal surface of the forelimb
caudal surface of the hindlimb
cranial surface of the hindlimb and the forelimb
Body cavities
cranial, thoracic, abdominal, pelvic
Body cavity
fluid filled spaces with just enough fluid to provide smooth movement of organs and prevent friction to keep smooth and moisturized
Cranial cavity
houses brain and nerves
Thoracic cavity
houses heart and lungs within the bony ribcase
Abdominal cavity
houses stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas, spleen, gall bladder
Pelvic cavity
abuts abdominal cavity and houses urinary bladder, uterus and reproductive organs
Function of body membranes
line or cover body surfaces and cavities, protect body surfaces, lubricate body surfaces
Three classifications of body membranes
mucous cutaneous, serous, synovial
Serous membranes
derivatives of lining of celomic cavity of the embryo
Examples of serous membranes
pericardium, pleura, peritoneum
Pericardium serous membrane
lines heart, lubricates and protects
Pleura serous membrane
lines the lungs
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