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The Vine Cycle: In California the vine cycle begins around _____ _, when new ______ emerge from the dormant bud. The shoots elongate during _____ and ___ and the vine flowers around ___ __. Tiny berries begin to grow but remain green and hard until about ____ __.
The Vine Cycle:
In California the vine cycle begins around April 1, when new shoots emerge from the dormant bud. The shoots elongate during April and May and the vine flowers around May 15. Tiny berries begin to grow but remain green and hard until about July 15.
The Vine Cycle: After July 15, veraison, the onset of ________, begins then and the berries begin to develop ____ and to ______.
After July 15, veraison, the onset of ripening, begins then and the berries begin to develop color and to soften.
The Vine Cycle:
When is the fruit usually harvested and this date varies with what key factors?
Fruit is usually harvested around September 15, but this date varies with the variety, the location, and the weather.
The Vine Cycle:
  • What is dormancy and when between what two months does it occur?
  • When does pruning occur?
  • In November or December, the vine loses its leaves and enters dormancy.
  • Pruning usually takes place between December and February.
What is the important role that dormant buds play?
buds contain the developing flower clusters that will produce the next year's fruit, the environmental conditions that exist this year and the farming practices used this year will greatly influence next year's crop.
  • The dormant bud begins to develop near the end of the summer.
What does the pigment in the berries produce and where is it found.
The pigment in grape berries is what produces the color of red wine is found in the skin of the berry.
What do the tannins contribute to the flavor of the wine and where can they be found?
The tannins in the seeds (and skins) contribute bitterness and astringency to the flavor of the wine.
Between veraison and harvest, how does the sugar concentration change?
Between veraison and harvest, the sugar concentration rises from about 4% to 20–28% as sugar is transported into the fruit from the leaves.
°Brix scale
equivalent to % sugar by weight.
Between veraison and harvest, how does the acid concentration change? This is mostly due to what?
Between veraison and harvest, the acid concentration (largely malic and tartaric acids) decreases from around 3% to less than 1%. Most of this decrease is due to dilution. Some of the malic acid is also lost by respiration
Between veraison and harvest, ________ develop in the skin of red varieties, ______ _________ develop and the _______ in the seeds also increase.
Between veraison and harvest, pigments develop in the skin of red varieties, flavor compounds develop and the tannins in the seeds also increase.
Harvest:
The decision to harvest wine grapes is typically made on what basis?
The decision to harvest wine grapes is typically made on the basis of sugar and acid concentrations.
Harvest:
The sugar must be high enough to produce the desired _______ ____________ in the wine and the acid must be high enough to maintain the _______ _________.
The sugar must be high enough to produce the desired alcohol concentration in the wine and the acid must be high enough to maintain the desired tartness.
(T/F) Varieties differ in the amount of heat they require to mature their fruit.
True
What are degree days?
The cumulative amount of heat typically available over the course of a season.
Generally, mature grapes cannot be produced with less than _____ degree days. Most wine grape regions in California have _____ to _____ degree days.
Generally, mature grapes cannot be produced with less than 1,700 degree days. Most wine grape regions in California have 2,000 to 4,000 degree days.
What happens when you grow wine grapes in hotter areas?
More sugar
• More tons per acre
• Ripe earlier
Lower acid
• Malic acid is respired
Less color
Less flavor
What happens if it's very hot?
• Shriveled fruit
• Sunburn
• Sugar accumulation stops
What happens when you grow wine grapes in cooler areas?
Less sugar
• Sugar addition may be necessary
More acid
• Wine will be more tart or sour tasting
More color
More flavor
Overall, better quality areas (CA)
What happens if it's very cold?
• Winter kill
• Spring frost (Important in California)
• Poor fruit set
• Fruit won’t ripen
What are the effects of water availability(When/How much)?
When?
• Winter rain ideal (deep roots)
• Summer rain --> rot
How much?
• Too little --> low production
• Too much --> poor quality
What is the function of soil while growing grapes?
• Supports the vine
• Holds water and nutrients
• Imparts flavor??? Hmmm . . .
• Mineral-like flavor NOT from minerals
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