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The American Revolution- The War
1 Reasons for fighting the American Revolution
*Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. and Signing the Declaration of Independence.
2 2 Reasons why George Washington
*Had battle experience in French & Indian War was chose to lead against English * Was from South- more Southern support for war would be gained.
3 British Advantages
*Large population (6-1) *Money *Industry *Best armed forces in world.
4 American Advantages
*Cause to fight for (freedom, family, and home.) *“Home field” advantage. *Help from foreign countries.
5 English Strategy to Win War
* Win war quickly “quick knockout” (2 years). *Use loyalist support. *Use Indians as allies.
6 American Strategy to Win War
*Prolong war – send war into “extra innings” or “overtime.” *Obtain help from Foreign nations.
7 European Nations that Aided America
*France, Spain, Holland.
8 Reasons for Foreign Help vs. English
*Revenge against England for past defeats.
9 Continental Army
*Name given to the American Army during the American Revolution.
10 Patriots
*Americans who supported the war for independence from England (approximately 1/3 of Americans).
11 Loyalists
*Americans who remained loyal to, and supported England during the Revolution (approximately 1/3 of Americans).
12 Neutrals
*Americans who chose not to take sides or get involved in the American Revolution (approximately 1/3 of Americans).
13 “Sunshine Patriots”
*Nickname for those who supported the war when it was going well, but who did not fight when war was going poorly.
14 Hessians
*German troops hired by King George III to fight against American colonists.
15 “Common Sense”
*Pamphlet written by Thomas Paine persuading Americans to fight for freedom from the English.
16 The “Turtle”
*American submarine developed to sink British ships. It was unsuccessful but the first submarine ever used in the history of warfare.
17 Historical Mistakes in Painting
*Washington was not standing in the boat. “Washington crossing the Delaware” *Washington’s boat not in lead. *Flag shown not made yet. *Boats to small. *Blizzard conditions not shown.
18 Treaty of Paris (1783)
*Treaty that ended the war. It gave America freedom and all lands up to Mississippi River.
People (fought for America)
19 General George Washington
*Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army. Brilliantly led America to victory and freedom in American Revolution (Became 1st US President.)
20 General Marquis de Lafayette
*18 year old French noble who voluntarily fought for America. *Excellent strategist. *Became almost like a son to Washington. *Gave 1,000,000 of his own money to help finance the war against England.
21 General Baron von Steuben
*Professional German soldier who drilled and trained Washington’s troops.
22 General Count Pulaski
*Polish cavalry leader (horse soldier) who volunteered to fight against the British. *Trained American cavalry. *Gave his life for American independence.
23 Captain John Paul Jones
*Best known American Navy hero in revolution. *Known for the statement “I have not yet begun to fight!” Also known as the “Father of the U.S. Navy.”
24 Thomas Jefferson
*American genius & chief author of Declaration of Independence. Gave Americans cause to fight. (3rd President)
25 Benjamin Franklin
*American representative to France who was key to winning French support for America during the Revolution.
26 Thomas Paine
*Helped win American freedom with “pen instead of the sword.” --Author of “Common Sense.”
27 Haym Solomon
*Jewish immigrant to America- gave $1,000,000 of his own money to help fight the British. He was never repaid. He died almost penniless.
28 Prince Whipple
*African American soldier who crossed the Delaware River with Washington (correctly shown in famous painting).
29 Peter Salem
*African American soldier who fought for America’s freedom. *Fought at Lexington-Concord—became a hero at Bunker Hill.
30 Deborah Sampson
*Young girl disguised as a man (Robert Shurtleff) (Robert Shurtleff) who fought bravely in American Revolution until she was discovered and discharged.
31 “Molly Pitcher”
*Famous American female who courageously took (Mary Hays) husband’s place in battle.
People (fought for England)
32 General John Burgoyne
*Developed the “master plan” to win the war (Gentleman Johnny) for England. Instead resulted in defeat and disaster for British in forests of New York.
33 General Lord Charles Cornwallis
*British general who was forced to surrender in last battle of American Revolution (Yorktown).
Battles
34 Bunker Hill (Breed’s Hill)
*First major battle of the Revolution. (1775) *Fought overlooking Boston. *Won by British but at terrible cost- 45% killed, wounded or missing.
35 Trenton
*First American victory. (1776) *Christmas, 1776 *Washington, crossed Delaware-surprised & defeated Hessians- 0 Americans killed. *Saved American Revolution.
36 Saratoga
*Turning point of war against British. (1777) *Fought in forests of New York. *3- pronged British attack failed- over 5,000 British troops forced to surrender. *Victory convinced France to join with America against British.
37 Yorktown
*Last major battle- won by Americans. (1781) *Fought in Virginia. *Over 7,000 British troops trapped by American & French armies- forced to surrender. *Convinced British to end war.
Native Americans and African Americans in the Revolution
38 Native Americans in the Revolution
*Most native tribes fought on side of English. *British guaranteed them their land if they won the war. *After British loss, American settlers took over native lands.
39 African Americans in the Revolution
*African Americans fought on both sides in the war. *Hoped to gain freedom if their side won the war. *Nearly 15% of the continental Army was made up of African American soldiers.
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