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ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II antagonists reduce hypertension by what mechanism?
reduce angiotensin II, aldosterone, decrease blood volume
Acetylcholine activates which channels while simultaneously affecting cAMP?
inward rectifier K channels
Acetylcholine binding to muscarinic cholinergic receptors antagonizes the effects of ____________ and decreases generation of __________.
norepinephrine, cAMP
Afferent signals elicted by increased arterial pressure are sent to the cardiovascular centers via the ______________ and _______________.
carotid sinus, vagus nerves
ANF is secreted by the atria of the heart in response to what?
high blood volume/high arterial pressure
Angiotensin II is a vasodilator or vasoconstrictor?
vasoconstrictor
Aside from the force-length diagram, what other phenomenon explains the fact that pre-load affects contractility?
fibers which are stretched more have a higher affinity for Ca (different isoform of troponin than skeletal muscle)
At ~21 days, blood is flowing in a _________ to _______ direction
caudal to cranial
At ~21 days, the sinus venosus is receiving blood from which three venous locations?
vitelline, umbilical, and cardinal
At what day does vasculogenesis begin?
18
Atropine has what effect on the heart?
it antagonizes acetylcholine, and therefore increases heart rate
b-adrenergic blockers (propranolol) reduce hypertension by what mechanism?
reduce cardiac contractility
Baroreceptor sensing of high arterial pressure will have what effect on heart rate?
decrease
Based on the vascular function curve, arterial constriction will have what effect on cardiac output?
decrease
By what mechanism does angiotensin II work?
increasing concentration of Ca in cytoplasm
By what molecular mechanism does ANF work?
increasing levels of cGMP
Ca channel blockers, a-adrenergic antagonists (phentolamine), and K channel openers act to reduce hypertension by what mechanism?
relaxing smooth muscle
CO2 acts directly and locally on blood vessels as a ______________, but in response to cerebral ischemia, it acts as a ______________.
vasodilator, vasoconstrictor
Concentric hypertrophy would follow from which pathological conditions?
hypertension, strength training
Correlate the outflow track, inflow track, and ventricular cells with their corresponding progenitor regions in the primitive streak.
outflow track - cranial, inflow track - caudal, ventricular cells - midstreak
Definition of stroke volume?
volume of blood ejected from the ventricle with each beat
Differentiate between the mechanisms of Ca+ release from the SR in skeletal versus cardiac muscle
skeletal - dihydropyridine receptors are mechanically linked to an SR gate, cardiac - influxed Ca opens the SR gate
diurectics (furosemide, thiazides) reduce hypertension by what mechanism?
increase urine output, decrease blood volume
During isovolumetric ventricular relaxation and contraction, all valves are _______.
closed
During large losses of blood volume (hemorrhage), large amounts of ___________ are secreted, causing peripheral vasoconstriction.
vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone)
Eccentric hypertrophy would follow from which pathological condition?
aortic insufficiency
Even though the forces generated in the R ventricle are smaller than the L, stroke volume is approximately the same because ________________
pulmonary resistance is low
Formula for stroke volume
end diastolic volume - end systolic volume
From wher edoes the vasomotor center receive signals?
higher center (emotions) and baroreceptors in the aorta and carotid arteries
fusion of the ____________results in the pericardial cavity
2 coelomic cavities
Fusion of the endocardial tubes forms the __________
primitive heart tube
How do you calculate mean arterial pressure?
1/3 systolic + 2/3 diastolic OR diastolic + 1/3 pulse pressure
How do you calculate total peripheral resistance?
[arterial pressure - venous pressure]/cardiac output
How will a blood transfusion effect the vascular function curve?
Shift up
How will a change in blood volume and a change in arterial resistance change the vascular function curve?
shift the curve, change the slope
How will arterial dilation effect the vascular function curve?
Decrease slope
If both the SA and AV nodes fail, the _________ can act as emergency pacemakers because they have a slow but present _______________.
Purkinje fibers, diastolic phase 4 depolarization
If the SA node was damaged due to ischemia, the AV node could take over, but the AV node beats at approximately _______ beats/min as opposed to _______ beats/min from the SA node
44-50, 70
In cardiac muscle, the resting tension is much _______ at normal fiber lengths than in skeletal muscle.
higher
In pressure overlaod hypertrophy, there is predominantly an increase in ______________ which is called ________________.
wall thickness, concentric hypertrophy
In response to decreases in blood pressure, the kidneys will secrete what?
renin
In volume overload hypertrophy there is a predominant increase in ______________, which is called________________.
radius, eccentric hypertrophy
In what layer does vasculogenesis begin?
splanchnic layer of extraembryonic mesoderm
Increased cardiac output will have what effect on venous pressure?
Decrease
Increasing total peripheral resistance will have what effect on cardiac and vascular function curves?
reduce the slope of both
Is ANF a vasodilator or vasoconstrictor?
vasodilator
K channel blocking drugs mimic the effects of what cardiac syndrome?
Long QT syndrome (mutations of select K channels(
Mural stress of the ventricular wall is directly proportional to the _______ of the ventricular chamber and inversely proportional to the __________.
radius, thickness Normal Aortal pressure
Normal blood pressure in R Ventricle
15-25/2-5
Normal L Ventricular pressure
100-130/5-10
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