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Eosinophil

Group-
Granulocyte
Population- 2-4% of WBCs
Size- 10-12µm
Nucleus- 2-3 lobes
Cytoplasm- filled with large red granules
Target- histamine in alergic reactions, antigen/antibody complexes, certain parasitic worms 
Increase- (eosnophilia)- allergic reactions, parasitic infections, autoimmune disease
Decrease- (eosinopenia)- bacterial infections, steroid use, Cushing's disease

Basophil

Group-
Granulocyte
Population- .5-1% of WBCs
Size- 8-10µm
Nucleus- large U or S shaped
Cytoplasm- filled with large deep blue-purple granules
Effect- liberate heparine and histamines during allergic reaction, intensify inflammatory response
Increase- (basophilia)- allergic reaction, leukemia, cancers, hypothyroidism
Decrease- (basopenia)- pregnancy, ovulation, stress, hyperthyroidism
Lymphocyte

Group-
Agranulocyte
Population- 20-25% of WBCs
Size- 6-9µm
Nucleus- round or slightly indented
Cytoplasm- forms rim around nucleus
Effect- produce antibodies (B cells)
Target- viruses, cancer cells, transplanted tissue (T cells); infectious microbes, tumor cells (natural killer cell)
Increase- (lymphocytosis)- viral infections, inflammation, some leukemias
Decrease- (lymphopenia)- prolonged illness, immunosuppression

Monocyte

Group-
Agranulocyte
Population- 3-8% of WBCs
Size- 12-20µm
Nucleus- kidney shaped
Cytoplasm- non-granular
Effect- phagocytic cell
Increase- (monocytosis)- viral/fungal infections, tuberculosis, some leukemias
Decrease- (monocytopenia)- bone marrow depression, extended cortisol treatment

Neutrophil

Group-
Granulocyte
Population- 60-70% of WBCs
Size- 10-12µm
Nucleus- 2-5 lobes
Cytoplasm- fine granular
Target- phagocytic against bacteria
Increase- (lymphocytosis)- stress, burns, bacterial infection
Decrease- (lymphopenia)- radiation exposure, B12 deficiency

Eurythrocyte

Group-
RBC
Population- 4.8-5.4 mil/microliter 
Size-
7-8µm
Nucleus- no nucleus
Cytoplasm- contains hemoglobin to carry oxygen
Effect- gas transport
Decrease- Anemia
Functions of Blood
Transportation- Blood transports oxygen from the lungs to the cells, carbon dioxide from the body cells to the lungs, nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract to body cells, hormones from endocrine glands to other body cells, and heat and waste products to various organs for elimination.
Regulation- Helps maintain homeostasis of all body fluids, helps regulate pH through the use of buffers, helps adjust body temperature, also blood osmotic pressure influences the water content of cells
Protection- Blood clots, which protects against its excessive loss from the cardiovascular system after an injury. White blood cells protect against disease by carrying on phagocytosis. Several types of blood proteins, including antibodies, interferons, and complement, help protect against disease in a variety of ways.
Components of Blood
Blood Plasma(55%)
Proteins(7%)
Water(91.5%)
Other solutes(1.5%)
Formed Elements(45%)
Platelets(150,000-400,000/µL)
White blood cells(5,000-10,000/µL)
Red blood cells(4.8-5.4 mil/µL)
Hemopoiesis
Blood cell production, which occurs in red bone marrow after birth. Also called hematopoiesis.
Red bone marrow
A highly vascularized connective tissue located in microscopic spaces between trabeculae of spongy bone tissue.
Pluripotent stem cell
Immature stem cell in red bone marrow that gives rise to precursors of all the different mature blood cells. Also called hemocytoblasts.
Erythropoietin
A hormone released by the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidneys that stimulates red blood cell production. EPO increases the number of red blood cell precursors.
Thrombopoietin
TPO is a hormone produced by the liver that stimulates the formation of platelets (thrombocytes) from megakaryocytes.
Hemopoietic growth factors
Regulates the differentiation and proliferation of particular progenitor cells.
Cytokinesis
Distribution of the cytoplasm into two separate cells during cell division; coordinated with nuclear division (mitosis).
Cytokines
Small glycoproteins that are typically produced by cells such as red bone marrow cells, leukocytes, macrophages, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. They generally act as local hormones. Two important families of cytokines that stimulate white blood cell formation are Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) and interleukins.
Erythrocyte
A mature red blood cell.
Hemoglobin
A substance in red blood cells consisting of the protein globin and the iron-containing red pigment heme that transports most of the oxygen and some carbon dioxide in blood.
Reticulocyte
An immature red blood cell.
Leukocyte
A white blood cell.
Eosinophil
A type of white blood cell characterized by granules that stain red or pink with acid dyes.
Basophil
A type of white blood cell characterized by a pale nucleus and large granules that stain blue-purple with basic dyes.
Neutrophil
A type of white blood cell characterized by granules that stain pale lilac with a combination of acidic and basic dyes.
Lymphocyte
A type of white blood cell that helps carry out cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immune responses; found in blood and in lymphatic tissues.
Monocyte
The largest type of white blood cell, characterized by agranular cytoplasm.
Macrophage
Phagocytic cell derived from a monocyte; may be fixed or wandering.
Fixed macrophage
Stationary phagocytic cell found in the liver, lungs, brain, spleen, lymph nodes, subcutaneous tissue, and red bone marrow. Also called a histiocyte.
Wandering macrophage
Phagocytic cell that develops from a monocyte, leaves the blood, and migrates to infected tissues.
Major histocompatibility (MHC) antigens
Surface proteins on white blood cells and other nucleated cells that are unique for each person (except for identical siblings); used to type tissues and help prevent rejection of transplanted tissues. Also known as human leukocyte antigens (HLA).
Phagocytosis
The process by which phagocytes ingest and destroy microbes, cell debris, and other foreign matter.
Lysozyme
A bactericidal enzyme found in tears, saliva, and perspiration.
Aplastic Anemia
Blood Loss Anemia
Embolus
Erythroblastosis Fetalis
Hemolytic Anemia
Hemophilia (A,B,C,D)
Hypervolemic
Hypovolemic
Iron-deficiency Anemia
Jaundice
Leukemia
Leukocytosis
Leukopenia
Microcytic Hypochromic Anemia
Pernicious Anemia
Physiologic Polycythemia
Polycythemia Vera
Sickle-cell Anemia
Thrombocytopenia
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