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Which substances are most commonly prescribed or categorized as controlled substances?
Narcotics, and some sedatives or tranquilizers that can only be ordered by someone with a special license
What is the reason that drugs may fall within the 5 major categories of control?
Potential for abuse or addiction
What are the four basic processes involved in drug utilization in the body?
absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion.
1 cup = how many mL?
240 mL
What is OU?
oculi uterque (both eyes)
How are corticosteroids used for respiratory disease?
They block the reaction to allergens and reduce airway hyperresponsiveness. Inhaled corticosteroids are used in the long-term control of asthma. They are often used to reduce the need for oral corticosteroids. Systemic corticosteroids are often used to get quick control of the disease when beginning long-term therapy. They are also used to speed recovery from moderate to severe episodes and prevent more of these episodes.
A now order is different than a stat order in that the nurse has how much time to give the medication?
1.5 hours
When teaching about antihistamines what is important to tell the pt?
The respiratory tract may become dry and mucus may thicken when using an antihistamine. The patient should be encouraged to drink large amounts of water to thin secretions and keep the mucous membranes moist. also can cause hypertension
What are severe symptoms or problems that arise because of the medication. An example would be that the patient might develop severe gastric bleeding from an ulcer caused by aspirin.
Adverse Reaction
What word defines the use of drugs in the treatment of disease?
Pharmacotherapeutics
How is Nitro stopped?
Nitroglycerin should be gradually weaned off
Know about nasal decongestants
Sprays deliver a fine mist that is easily trapped in the upper respiratory tract, so they are less likely to reach the GI tract. Topical preparations should not be used for more than 3 to 5 days because of the risk of a rebound effect. Oral preparations are more appropriate for long-term use. To prevent swallowing of the drug, the patient\'s head should be tipped back when giving nose drops.
If the effect of two drugs taken at the same time is greater than the sum of the effects of each drug given alone, the drugs have what type of an effect? This is often seen when individuals are exposed to pollutants and toxins.
Synergistic effect
What is the way a drug enters the body and passes into the body fluids and tissues?
Absorption
What are thrombolytic agents and how are they used?
Clot busters. Thrombolytic agents are used in acute myocardial infarction for lysis of thrombi blocking coronary arteries, in acute pulmonary emboli for clot lysis when the patient is hemodynamically unstable, and in acute ischemic stroke and acute arterial occlusion.
What is the protocol where patients bring their medications to the hospital?
A physician\'s order is required before any medication may be given in the hospital. Without an order, hospitalized patients cannot take even their own OTC medicines brought along to the hospital. This policy is necessary for safety reasons. Patients have been found to take their own medicines in addition to those medicines given by hospital staff. This can result in an overdose of medicine.
How many mL in a tablespoon?
15 mL
Common hyperlipidemic drugs:
Zocor (simvastatin), Lipitor (atorvastatin Ca), Pravachol (pravastatin)
How many gtt per mL in macrodrip tubing?
10 gtt = 1 mL
How are Expectorants used?
Expectorants are agents that decrease the thickness of respiratory secretions and aid in their removal. Expectorants are used to treat symptoms of productive cough. These products may be useful in chronic respiratory disease when thick mucus is a complication.
What are drugs that attach at receptor site and activate the receptor; the drug has an action similar to the body\'s own chemicals, and the chemical response is usually good.
Agonists
What refers to the ways that drugs move by means of circulating body fluids to their sites of action in the body?
Distribution
What type of drug name are usually long and hyphenated, and they describe the atomic or molecular structure?
Chemical name
What word defines what the body does to the drug?
Pharmacokinetics
What is the ordering procedure?
1. Physician orders medication, 2. Orders transcribed onto Kardex, 3. Nurser verifies accuracy of order and transcription, 4. Order is sent to Pharmacy, 5. Medication is dispensed to floor and 6. Nurse administers according to guidelines
What is digoxin
Drug to treat dysrhythmias
What was created by Congress to watch over the testing, approval, and marketing of new drugs?
Congress created the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Cromolyn and nedocromil sodium, have no antihistaminic, antiinflammatory, or bronchodilator activity, so they are effective only for what?
prophylaxis (prevention of or protection against disease) and should not be used in an acute attack of asthma
What is the protocol where a controlled substance is spilled or accidentally contaminateed?
Two nurses must sign the inventory report and describe the situation.
Pt has attack of acute angina, what is the treatment of choice?
Nitroglycerin
If the dr wants therapeutic level of digoxin when is it effective?
As soon as level hits 0.5 it is therapeutic
What are antiplatelet agents?
these products act to limit or inhibit platelet aggregation (clumping) and thus reduce thrombus formation. i.e., Aspirin, Plavix
What components must a medication order have?
The patient\'s full name, date, name of drug, route of administration, dose, frequency, duration, and signature of prescriber. Additional details about how to give the drug may also be written: “Take with meals,” “Avoid milk products with this drug,” “Do not refill,” “Please label.”
What type of medication order is a one-time order to be given immediately?
STAT Order
What are reactions that are the opposite of what would be expected?
Paradoxical Reaction
How many gtt are in a mL?
15 gtts
How many mL in a teaspoon?
5 mL
What type of name is given by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Sometimes this name is similar to the brand or chemical name. The first letter of the official name is also capitalized?
Official name
Which type of medication order indicates that the drug is to be administered until discontinued or for a certain number of doses?
STANDING order
Drug products considered to be identical with respect to their active ingredients are known as what?
Generic equivalents
Which type of medication order is a one-time order to be given at specified time?
SINGLE order
Pt has painful urination, the dr will prescribe What?
Pyridium
In today\'s society which age group do we need to be concerned about having aldohol-drug interactions?
OLDER ADULTS, who take 25% to 30% of all prescription medications and also frequently drink alcohol
What are S&S of digitalis toxicity?
bradycardia, tachycardia, dysrhythmia, headache, dizzy, nausea, anorexia, vomiting, depression
What is your first duty in the event that you have given a medication error and have given the wrong medication to a client?
1. assess the patient. 2. notify physician and follow any orders the physician gives, 3. notify nursing supervisor, 4. continue to assess the patient 5. document the incident
What is OD?
oculus dexter (Right Eye)
What is a strange, unique, or unpredicted reactions. An example would be blood in the urine caused by aspirin. This is rare.
Idiosyncratic Response
What are the major points of excretion of drugs from the body?
GI tract, Kidneys, Lungs, Sweat, Breastmilk
What is the name the drug manufacturer uses for a drug, and it is the same in all countries?
Generic
What is OS?
oculus sinister (left eye)
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