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ST-study guide (Anatomy & Physiology)
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1--Which of the following structures is located in the alveolar processes?



Teeth


2--The portion of the stomach surrounding the lower esophageal sphincter is called the:



Cardia


3--The Islets of Langerhans secrete:



Insulin



4--The area in the duodenum where the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct empty is called the:



Ampulla of Vater


5--The primary function of the gallbladder is to:



Store bile



6--The plicae cirulares microvilli & villi are:


Are all found in the Large Intestine


7--The first part of the small intestine is the:


Duodenum


8--The appendix is attached to the:


Cecum


9--The double-layered, apron-like structure that hangs from the lower border of the stomach is the:


Greater omentum


10--The main function of the large intestine is to:


Reabsorb water and electrolytes


11--A chemical reaction that provides energy by the breakdown of food molecules is called:


Catabolism


12--Which of the following substances is the body's preferred source of energy?


Carbohydrates


13--The process by wich glucose is stored in the liver and skeletal muscle cells as glycogen is:


Glycogenesis


14--The structure that binds the small intestine to the posterior abdominal wall is the:


Mesentery


15--The salivary glands located in the front of the ear that become inflamed and enlarged during mumps are the:


Parotid


16--The catabolism of fats produces which of the following substances?


Amino Acids


17--Vitamins A,D,E, & K are absorbed in the:


Intestine


18--When body cells require energy, what molecule is broken down?


Pancreas


19--When body cells require energy, what molecule is broken down?


ATP molecule


20--The outer layer of the intestine is the:


Serosa


21--The Cricoid Cartilage is a:


Ring of cartilage forming the inferior walls of the larynx


22--The passageway for foods and liquids into the digestive system & for air into the respiratory system is the:


Pharynx


23--The larynx is located between the:


Pharynx & the Trachea


24--The vocal cords are located in the:


Larynx


25--Which structure has three divisions consisiting of naso, oro, and laryngo?


Pharynx


26--The function of the trachea to:


Conduct air to & from the Lungs


27--The space between thevocal cords is called the:


Glottis


28--The nasal cavity is divided into two portions by the:


Septum


29--The structure that drains excess tears to the nasal cavity, causing the nose to run is the:


Nasolacrimal duct




30--The cartilaginous nasal septum lies upon which bone?


Vomer


31--The structure that connects the middle ear & the throat, allowing the eardrum to vibrate freely, is the:


Eustachian tube


32--Another name for the typanic membrane is the:


Eardrum


33--The winding, cone-shaped tube of the inner ear is the:


Cochlea


34--The nasal sinus located between the nose and the orbits is the:


Ethmoid


35--Which ossicle of the middle ear covers the oval window?


Stapes


36--The large, leaf-shaped laryngeal cartilage that acts as a trap door over the larynx is the:


Epiglottis


37--Which part of the ear is responsible for equilibrium?


Semicircular canal


38--A term referring to a waxy secretion in the external ear canal is:


Cerumen


39--Which of the following structures is not an ossicle of the middle ear?


Vestibule

The ossicles of the Middle ear are the (Incus, Stapes, Malleus)


40--The fluid within the membranous Labryinth is called:


Endolymph


41--In the physiology of hearing sound waves collect in the ___ & pass on to hit the ___.


External auditory canal, Tympanic membrane


42--Striated-voluntary muscle tissue is found in the ___ muscle tissue:


Skelital


43--The white, tough layer of the eye that gives it its shape is the:


Sclera

Gives shape to the eyeball and makes it more rigid


44--The layer of the eye that is clear, covers the iris, and contains no blood vessels is the:


Cornea

is a nonvascular, transparent, & covers the Iris.


45--The layer of the eye that absorbs light rays and nourishes the retinal through its numerous blood vessels is the:


Choroid

is highly vascular & gives nutrients to the posterior surface of the retina


46--Which muscle alters the shape of the lens of the eye to accommodate near or far vision?


Ciliary Muscle

Alters the shape of the lens


47--What structure regulates the amount of light entering the eye & assists in obtaining a clear image?


Iris

regulates the amount of light & assists in getting a clear image


48--Intraocular pressure is primarily dependent on:


Aqueous humor

produces Intraocular Pressure


49--At the junction of the sclera & cornea is a venous sinus known as the:


Canal of Schlemm

is located at the junction of the sclera & cornea


50--The smooth intrinsic muscle that alters the shape of the eye lens is the:


Ciliary

body alters the shape of the eye lens


51--The ciliary body is part of which layer of the eye?


Vascular

ciliary body is located in the anterior portion of the vascular tunic.



52--A capillary network of blood vessels within the rerenal cortex that functions as a filter is called the:


Glomerulus



53--The triangular area of the bladder that is formed by the two openings of the ureters & the opening of the urethra is known as the:


Trigone




54--Gerota's fascia is located:


Arround the Kidney




55--The kidneys are positioned:


Retroperitoneally

Since the kidneys are located behind the peritoneal lining of the abdominal cavity, they are retroperitoneal organs.


56--The functional unit of the kidney responsible for removing waste & regulating fluid is the:


Nephrons




57--The most abundant extracellular ion necessary for the transmission of impulses is:


Sodium


58--The prostate gland secretes:


Alkaline Fluid


59--The first step of urine production in which fluids & dissolved substances are forced through a membraane by pressure is called.


Glomerular filtration


60--Sperm are produced by the:


Seminiferous tubules


61--The cup-like extensions of the kidney pelvis that collect urine from the pyramids are:


Calyces


62--The notch on the kidney through which the ureters exit is the:


Hilum


63--Which of the following is the principal male hormone produced in the testes and responsible for sexual characteristics?


Testosterone


64--The comma_shaped organ that lies along the posterior border of the testis is the:


Epididymis


65--The only artery in the body that carries unoxygenated blood is th:


Pulmonary artery


66--The pacemaker of the heart is the:


SA node


67--Which arteries are formed by the bifurcation of the abdominal aorta?


Iliac


68--The process by which blood cells are formed is known as:


Hemopoiesis


69--Which of the following arises from the left ventricles?


Aorta

Ascending Aorta


70--The pancreas lies behind the stomach & duodenum in the right & left upper quaderants & is divided into __ portions:


Three


71--Which organ is responsible for the sythesis of many of the coagulation factors?


Liver


72--The atrioventricular (AV) valve between the left atrium & the left ventricle is the:


Bicuspid (Mitral) valve


73--The inner layer of an artery is known as the:


Intima or (Tunica Intera)


74--Which of the following vessels arises from the right ventricle?


Pulmonary Artery


75--Which of the following vessels arises from the right ventricle?


Pulmonary veins

(empty into the left ventricle)


76--The large artery found behind the knee is the:


Popliteal Artery


77--The large artery that arises from the left side of the aortic arch and descends into the arm is the:


Subclavian


78--The medial malleolus is part of which bone?


Tibia


79--The sutures of the skkull are examples of:


Synthrosis


80--Which characteristic does not belon to a synovial joint?


Synchondrosis containign hyaline cartilage


81--Which of the following is an example of a saddle joint?


Thumb and trapezium


82--Smooth, sustained contractions produced by serveral very rapid stimuli are called:


Tetanus


83--The dense white fibrous covering around bone is the:


Periosteum


84--An example of a short bone is the:


The wrist


85--A large, bony process found on the femur is a:


Trochanter


86--The foramen magnum is found in which bone?


Occipital bone


87--An example of a flat bone is the:


Cranial Bones


88--The acromion is part of which bone?


Scapula or Shoulder Blade


89--The olecranon is part of which bone?


Ulna


90--which of the following is not a carpal?


Styloid


91--The only bone in the body that does not articulate with another is the:


Hyoid Bone


92--The Shaft of the bone is known as the:


Diaphysis


93--The extremity or end of a bone is known as the: 


Epiphysis


94--Another name for Spongy Bone is:


Cancellous


95--The vertebrae are examples of what type of bone?


Irregular


96--The area of a bone where growth occurs until early adulthood is the:


Epiphyseal plate


97--What bone from the greater portion of the sides and roof of the cranial cavity?


Temporal


98--The structure that serves as the socket for the head of the femur is the:


Acetabulum


99--Where are cruciate ligaments found in the knee?


Lateral & Medial in the knee


100--A triangular muscle that abducts the arm & covers the shoulder is the:


Deltoid


101--The rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, & the vastus intermedius are muscles that extend the legs & are known as the:


Quadriceps


102--The muscle that flexes & supinates the forearm & covers the anterior portion of the upper arm is the:


Biceps brachii


103--The muscle that forms the bulk of the upper calf is the:


Gastronemius


104--The mandible articulates with the:


Temporal bone


105--The thoracic spine contains how many vertebrae?


12


106--The inner lining of the uterus is the:





107--The walls of the vagina are lined with:





108--All of the following ligaments maintain the position of the uterus except the:





109--The perineum is the:





110--Fertilization of the ovu generally occurs in the:





111--The hormone responsible for the development & maintaine the development & maintenance of the female secondar sex characteristics.





112--