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Endocrine system
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Hypothalamic hormones:


1.Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH): Promotes secretion of TSH and PRL 2.Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH): Promotes secretion of ACTH 3.Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH): Promotes secretion of FSH and LH 4.Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH): Promotes secretion of GH 5.Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH): Inhibits secretion of PRL 6.Somatostatin: Inhibits secretion of GH and TSH


All these can cause Cushings Syndrome except: A. ACTH hypersecretion by the pituitary B. ACTH-secreting tumors C. Hyperactivity of the adrenal cortex D. Hyperactivity of the adrenal medulla E. Excess cortisol secretion


D. Hyperactivity of the adrenal medulla


The neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary) secretes:


Oxytocin (OT)


The precursor chemical for ACTH synthesis is:


POMC (pro-opiomelanocortin)


____ are secreted by one cell into the tissue fluid, diffuse to nearby cells in the same tissue, and stimulate their physiology.


Paracrines


Posterior pituitary hormones :


1.Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) 2.Oxytocin (OT)


Endocrine glands Release their secretions :


directly into the blood


Iodine accumulation in thyroid cells involves symport (bringing in two chemicals at the same time) with:


Sodium


Even a small quantity of hormone can have a strong effect on its target cell because of:


Enzyme amplification


The parathyroid glands produce a hormone that:


Increases the level of calcium ions in the blood


The ____ secretes a hormone as a response to hypocalcemia.


Parathyroid glands


This is the last step in the sequence of events happening when cyclic AMP acts as a second messenger:


Enzymes are activated or deactivated by the action of protein kinases


This gland has both endocrine and exocrine function:


The ovary


These statements about diabetes mellitus are correct except: A. The body produces autoantibodies that destroy the pancreatic beta cells in type 1 DM B. Target cells are unresponsive to insulin in type II DM C. Both type I and type II DM are characterized by lack of, or low levels of insulin D. Diabetic neuropathy is a common long term effect of DM E. Type II DM is more common than type I DM


C. Both type I and type II DM are characterized by lack of, or low levels of insulin


T4 and T3 are ____ hormones that are mainly transported _____ in the blood.


Monoamine; bound to thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)


The effects of thyroid hormone on peripheral tissue include:


Increased sensitivity to sympathetic stimulation


____ is not a steroid hormone.


Insulin


Neither follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) nor testosterone alone can stimulate significant sperm production, whearas when they act together, the testes produce some 300,000 sperm per minute. This exemplifies:


The synergistic effect


The hypophyseal portal system connects:


The anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) with the hypothalamus


CRH stimulates the release of:


ACTH


Cortisol:


Supresses the immune system and influences brain function


Cortisol: A. Inhibits fat digestion B. Stimulates protein synthesis C. Promotes glycogen synthesis D. Stimulates glucose intake by most organs E. Promotes breakdown of fat and protein


E. Promotes breakdown of fat and protein


Melanocortins include :


ACTH And MSH


The ____ secretes _____, which promotes Na+ and water retention.


Adrenal cortex; aldosterone


These are all hypothalamic hormones except: A. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) B. Luteinizing hormone (LH) C. Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) D. Somatostatin E. Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH)


B. Luteinizing hormone (LH)


The infundibulum is:


A projection of the hypothalamus from which the pituitary gland hangs


Without cortisols permissive effect on ____, an animal would die


Glucagon


The resistance stage in the general adaptation syndrome (stress response) is dominated by:


Cortisol


A condition that produces a reduction in bone mass or density sufficient to compromise normal function is:


osteoporosis (precursor is osteopenia)


Your breathing rate is 14 breaths/minute; spirometric measurements reveal your tidal volume is 500 mL; your inspiratory reserve volume is 3000 mL; and your expiratory reserve volume is 1200 mL. your vital capacity is ____ mL.


4700


Target organs most often regulate the pituitary gland via:


Negative feedback inhibition


Cortisol secretion peakes between ____ and _____ .


Early morning, noon


Parathyroid hormone:


Stimulates osteoclast activity Increases the rate of calcium absorption Decreases the rate of calcium excretion Raises the level of calcium in the blood


Which of the following is the correct sequence of events leading to polyuria and dehydration?


Hyperglycemia-->Glucose enters renal tubules-->Glucose transport maximum exceeded-->Glucose in urine raises osmolarity of tubular fluid-->Osmotic diuresis


Nitrogen bubbles can form in the blood and other tissues when a scuba diver ascends too rapidly, producing a syndrome called:


Cerebral embolism


The zona fasciculata in the adrenal gland secretes:


Cortisol


thyroid hormones are _____, and must _____ for transport to target cells.


lipophilic, bind to plasma proteins


A gangrenous diabetic ulcer can be treated with:


Hyperbaric oxygen


steroid and thyroid hormones typically require _____ to show an effect. Why is this?


several hours to days. because of the time required for genetic transcription, translation, and accumulation of enough protein product to have a significant effect on target cell metabolism.


Aspirin and ibuprofen block: A. The release of arachidonic acid from the plasma membrane B. The action of phospholipase A1 C. The action of phospholipase A2 D. The action of lipoxygenase E. The action of cyclooxygenase


E. The action of cyclooxygenase


_____ secretion is controlled by neuroendocrine reflexes, whearas _____ secretion is controlled by negative feedback mechanisms.


Oxytocin (OT); antidiuretic hormone (ADH)


In the alarm reaction of the General Adaptation Syndrome, what does angiotension serve as?


Helps raise blood pressure


During the exhaustion stage of the general adaption syndrome (stress response) stress overwhelms homeostasis. A characteristic of this stage is that:


Energy demands are met primarily by protein metabolism


Thyrotropin-releasing hormone targets the:


Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)


Calcium reabsorption at the kidneys is promoted by the hormone:


calcitriol


hyperthyroidism increases ____.


protein catabolism


GH is secreted by the ____ pituitary, and _____.


anterior, binds to plasma protein


These are all secreted by the pancreas except: A. Glucagon B. Pancreatic polypeptide C. Gastrin D. Somatostatin (Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone) E. Somatotropin (Growth hormone)


E. Somatotropin (Growth hormone)


The ____ secretes several hormones that stimulate the development of lymphatic organs and regulates development and activity of T cells (white blood cells).


Thymus


Your breathing rate is 12 breaths/minute; your tidal volume is 500 mL; your vital capacity is 4700mL; and your dead air space is 150 mL. Your alveolar ventilation rate is ____ mL/min.


4200


A hormone that can lower blood levels of calcium ion is:


Calcitonin (packs it into bones)


The nervous system reacts to stimuli _____ compared to the endocrine system, adapts ____ compared to the endocrine system, adapts _____ compared to the endocrine system, and has _____ effects compared to the endocrine system.


Quickly, quickly, specific


In the alarm reaction of the GAS What does aldosterone promote?


sodium and water conservation


Growth Hormone (GH) hypersecretion causes gigantism when it begins in childhood, but it is more likely to cause ______ when it begins in adulthood. A. Myxedema B. Graves disease C. Cushings syndrome D. Goiter E. Acromegaly


E. Acromegaly


Negative feedback inhibition occurs when:


Thyroid hormone (TH) targets the anterior pituitary


_____ has more target cells in the body than any of the others.


Growth hormone (GH)


Eicosanoids are derived from:


Arachidonic acids


Elevated levels of calcium ion in the blood stimulate the secretion of hormone:


Calcitonin (comes from c cells of thyroid)


Absence of iodine in the diet leads to:


Hypothyroidism


Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) targets the:


Kidneys


What makes a cell a target of a particular hormone?


The presence of a receptor for that particular hormone


Many hours after a meal, alpha cells in the pancreatic islets (islets of langerhans) secrete:


Glucagon, which raises blood glucose


Deep, rapid breathing often seen in terminal diabetes mellitus is known as what?


Kussmaul respiration


Diabetes insipidus is caused by: A. Epinephrine hypersecretion B. Cortisol hypersecretion C. Aldosterone hypersecretion D. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) hyposecretion E. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) hypersecretion


D. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) hyposecretion


Thyroid hormone contains the mineral:


Iodine


_____ is synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum.


Glucagon


This figure shows:


Modulation of target cell sensitivity by down-regulation


The adrenal medulla (inside) produces:


Catecholamines: epinephrine and norepinephrine, chromaffin cells


Which of the following is the term for a deficiency of oxygen or the inability to utilize oxygen in a tissue?


Hypoxia


The C cells (parafolicular cells) of the thyroid gland produce:


Calcitonin


This hormone plays an important role in synchronizing physiological function with the cycle of daylight and darkness:


Melatonin


The ____ is not an endocrine gland but it has a role in endocrine function.


Kidney


The _____ secretes a hormone that increases the body\'s metabolic rate, promotes alertness and quickens reflexes, and stimulates the fetal nervous system.


Thyroid gland


Anterior pituitary hormones:


1.Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) 2.Luteinizing hormone (LH) 3.Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) 4.Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) 5.Prolactin (PRL) 6.Growth hormone (GH)


Somatostatin is another name for:


Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone


_____ enters the target cell\'s nuclei and acts directly on the genes.


Estrogen


The initial response to stress is called ____ and is mediated mainly by _____. A. The resistance stage; cortisol B. The resistance stage; aldosterone and cortisol C. The alarm reaction; norepinephrine and epinephrine D. The alarm reaction; cortisol E. The exhaustion stage; norepinephrine and epinephrine


C. The alarm reaction; norepinephrine and epinephrine


The pituitary hormone that triggers the release of thyroid hormone in the thyroid gland is:


TSH


Diabetes mellitus is characterized by the following except: A. Hypoglycemia B. Polyuria C. Polyphagia D. Polydipsia E. Glycosuria


A. Hypoglycemia