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People’s reactions to our genetic dispositions constitute part of our


Compared with fraternal twins, identical twins are

more similar in their risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease and more similar in risk of being emotionally unstable.

Adoptive parents are LEAST likely to influence the ________ of their adopted children.

personality traits

Intense and reactive infants become unusually anxious and aroused when facing new or strange situations. This best illustrates the importance of


In emphasizing that heredity’s effects on behavior depend on a person’s home environment, psychologists are highlighting the importance of

nature-nurture interactions.

Which of the following is a major source of genetic diversity?


The prevalence of genetically predisposed traits that have a reproductive advantage is best explained in terms of

natural selection

It has been suggested that older men in all cultures tend to marry women younger than themselves because men are genetically predisposed to seek female features associated with youthful fertility. This suggestion best illustrates

an evolutionary perspective.

Premature babies are especially likely to gain weight if stimulated by

touch and massage.

At a social gathering, Latin Americans may behave in a manner that North Americans consider intrusive and overly expressive. This best illustrates the importance of being sensitive to differing


Displays of self-effacing humility are most characteristic of those who value


Over the last century, Western parents have placed ________ priority on teaching children to respect and obey parents and ________ priority on teaching them loyalty to their country.

decreasing; decreasing

Compared with males, females are more likely to base their sense of personal identity on their

.social relationships.

The acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role is called

gender typing.

Concepts of masculinity and femininity that influence our perceptions are called gender


Studies of the relative impact of nature and nurture on human differences in aggressiveness best illustrate the research efforts of

behavior geneticists.

Chromosomes are composed of

deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA

Two individuals are most likely to differ in personality if they are

fraternal twins who were raised apart.

Adopted children are especially likely to have similar ________ if raised in the same home.

religious beliefs

Evolutionary psychologists attribute the human tendency to fear snakes and heights to

genetic predispositions.

Charles Darwin suggested that the evolution of living organisms is guided by

natural selection.

Critics of evolutionary psychology are particularly likely to emphasize that gender differences in mate preferences are byproducts of

cultural practices.

The tendency to exaggerate the impact of parents’ child-rearing practices on children’s personality has been most characteristic of

Freudian psychologists.

Teens who smoke typically have friends who smoke. To avoid overestimating the impact of peer pressure on teens’ smoking habits, it would make the most sense to consider the impact of

smoking preferences on friendship choices.

By inventing customs and passing them on to their peers and offspring, chimpanzees exhibit the rudiments of


The dramatic increase in Americans’ premarital sexual activity over the past half-century best illustrates that sexual behavior is influenced by


Defining one’s identity in terms of one’s extended family or work group is most closely associated with


A single ________ on the ________ chromosome plays a crucial role in the prenatal development of the testes.

gene; Y

In the United States 30 years ago, men were expected to initiate dates and women to select wedding gifts. This best illustrates aspects of

gender roles.

Because he believes that crying is a feminine trait, 14-year-old George has difficulty admitting that a movie makes him tearful. His experience best illustrates the impact of

gender schemas

Dr. Matsuko’s major research interest is the long-term effects of child-rearing practices on the psychological adjustment of offspring. It is most likely that Dr. Matsuko is a(n) ________ psychologist.


Nutrients and oxygen are transferred from a mother to her developing fetus through the


When touched on the cheek, infants reflexively

open their mouths

The importance of schemas was most clearly highlighted by

Piaget’s cognitive development theory.

Two closed, pyramid-shaped beakers containing clearly identical amounts of a liquid are judged by a child to hold different amounts after one of the beakers is inverted. The child apparently lacks a

concept of conservation.

A child’s realization that others may have beliefs that the child knows to be false best illustrates the development of

a theory of mind.

The process of imprinting occurs during a brief developmental phase known as

a critical period.

Although 3-year-old Adam happily explores the attractive toys located in the dentist’s waiting room, he periodically returns to his mother’s side for brief moments. Adam most clearly displays signs of

.secure attachment.

“I don’t care whether you want to wash the dishes, you will do so because I said so!” This statement is most representative of a(n) ________ parenting style.


Mark believes that choosing to violate government laws is morally justifiable if it is done to protect the lives of innocent people. Kohlberg would suggest that this illustrates ________ morality.


Jessica acts so differently with her parents than with her girlfriends that she often thinks her personality is completely phony. Erik Erikson would have suggested that Jessica is experiencing

role confusion.

Neurogenesis in the hippocampus is promoted by

aerobic exercise.

Which of the following terms refers to a person’s accumulated knowledge and verbal skills?

crystallized intelligence

Compared with their counterparts of 40 years ago, people in Western cultures today are marrying at a(n)

older age and they are more likely to divorce.

Questions about the extent to which maladaptive habits learned in childhood can be overcome in adulthood are most directly relevant to the issue of

stability or change.

For the unborn children of mothers who smoke heavily, nicotine is a(n)


By a week after birth, infants are able to distinguish between their mothers’ and strangers’

body odors.

After Nadia learned that penguins can’t fly, she had to modify her existing concept of birds. This best illustrates the process of


During Piaget’s sensorimotor stage, children acquire a

sense of object permanence.

Deficient social interaction and an impaired understanding of others’ states of mind is most characteristic of


Marissa resents the burden and constraints of caring for her infant daughter and frequently ignores her cries for attention. As a consequence, her daughter is most likely to display signs of

insecure attachment.

People’s styles of romantic love in adulthood are most likely to reflect their childhood

attachment experiences.

Compared with the children of authoritarian parents, the children of authoritative parents are

more likely to develop a sense of self-reliance and more likely to demonstrate social competence

Female breasts are to ________ as male testes are to ________.

secondary sex characteristics; primary sex characteristics

Jarrud thinks he should obey his teachers only if they are carefully watching him. Kohlberg would suggest that Jarrud demonstrates a(n) ________ morality.


The process of developing a sense of identity during adolescence was highlighted by

Erikson’s psychosocial development theory

Menopause involves a decline in


As adults age, they show the greatest declines in

fluid intelligence and in the memory capacities needed to recall recently presented information

According to Erikson, older adults can most effectively cope with the prospect of their own death if they have achieved a sense of


Mark thinks that language development over the life span requires a slow but steady shaping process. His belief is most directly relevant to the issue of

continuity or stages.

Through direct experience with animals, we come to anticipate that dogs will bark and that birds will chirp. This best illustrates

associative learning

John B. Watson believed that psychology should be the science of

.observable behavior.

Pavlov noticed that dogs began salivating at the mere sight of the person who regularly brought food to them. For the dogs, the sight of this person had become a(n)

conditioned stimulus

Blinking in response to a puff of air directed to your eye is a


Conditioning seldom occurs when a ________ comes after a(n) ________.


Long after her conditioned fear of dogs had been extinguished, Marcy experienced an unexpected surge of nervousness when first shown her cousin’s new cocker spaniel. Her unexpected nervousness best illustrates

spontaneous recovery.

A year after surviving a classroom shooting incident, Angie still responds with terror at the sight of toy guns and to the sound of balloons popping. This reaction best illustrates


The predictability of an association between a CS and a US facilitates an organism’s ability to anticipate the occurrence of the US. This fact is most likely to be highlighted by a ________ perspective.


The law of effect was most clearly highlighted by

Skinner’s experiments on reinforcement.

In teaching her son to play basketball, Mrs. Richards initially reinforces him with praise for simply dribbling while standing still, then only for walking while dribbling, and finally only for running while dribbling. She is using a procedure known as


If the onset of a light reliably signals the onset of food, a rat in a Skinner box will work to turn on the light. In this case, the light is a ________ reinforcer.


Airline frequent flyer programs that reward customers with a free flight after every 50,000 miles of travel illustrate the use of a ________ schedule of reinforcement.


Because she has oversight responsibility for the servicing and repair of her company’s fleet of cars, Rhonda frequently calls the garage mechanic to inquire whether service on various cars has been completed. Because service completion times are unpredictable, she is likely to be reinforced with positive responses to her inquiries on a ________ schedule.


Punishment ________ the rate of operant responding, and negative reinforcement ________ the rate of operant responding.

decreases; increases

If one chimpanzee watches a second chimp solve a puzzle for a food reward, the first chimp may thereby learn how to solve the puzzle. This best illustrates

observational learning.

If you have a “frightening experience” immediately after hearing a strange sound, your fear may be aroused when you hear that sound again. This best illustrates

classical conditioning.

Researchers condition a flatworm to contract when exposed to light by repeatedly pairing the light with electric shock. The electric shock is a(n)

unconditioned stimulus.

You repeatedly hear a tone just before having a puff of air directed to your eye. Blinking to the tone presented without an air puff is a


Months after she was raped, Courtney’s heart pounds with fear merely at the sight of the place in which she was attacked. The location of her attack is most likely a(n) ________ for Courtney’s anxiety.

.conditioned stimulus

After being bitten by his neighbor’s dog, Miguel experienced fear at the sight of that dog but not at the sight of other dogs. This best illustrates the process of


If you get violently ill a couple of hours after eating contaminated food, you will probably develop an aversion to the taste of that food but not to the sight of the restaurant where you ate or to the sound of the music you heard there. This best illustrates that associative learning is constrained by

biological predispositions.

If children get attention from their parents for doing cartwheels, they will repeat the trick in anticipation of more attention. This best illustrates

operant conditioning.

Matt regularly buckles his seat belt simply because it turns off the car’s irritating warning buzzer. This best illustrates the value of

negative reinforcement.

A word of praise is to a soothing back rub as ________ is to ________.

conditioned reinforcer; primary reinforcer

A pigeon receives food for pecking a key, but only rarely and on unpredictable occasions. This best illustrates

.partial reinforcement

For professional baseball players, swinging at a pitched ball is reinforced with a home run on a ________ schedule.


During a typical morning, Colin checks the clock frequently before being reinforced with confirmation that the time for his regularly scheduled lunch break has arrived. In this case, Colin’s behavior is reinforced on a ________ schedule.


To reduce the personally harmful behavior of some self-destructive children, therapists have squirted water in their faces whenever they bite themselves. The squirt of water is a


An empathic husband who observes his wife in pain will exhibit some of the brain activity she is showing. This best illustrates the functioning of

mirror neurons.

Which pioneering learning researcher highlighted the antisocial effects of aggressive models on children’s behavior?