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Experts predict that the median age in the United States will rise to _____ years by the year 2050.


Middle-aged adults tend to focus more on assessment of ___ than young adults do.

how much time remains in life

During middle age, the ability to hear ___ sounds declines first.


Sensitivity to ___ pitches usually declines first among ___.

high; men

The main cause of death in middle adulthood in the United States is:


What is the hormonal change that is associated with menopause in women?

decrease in estrogen

Since 2004, many women and their doctors are concerned that the hormonal treatments available for menopause may have the side effect of being associated with:

stroke and breast cancer

Fluid intelligence is the ability to:

reason abstractly

The Seattle Longitudinal Study concluded that middle age is a time of:

peak performance for verbal abilities and verbal memory

In Erik Erikson's theory, adults strive for generativity to achieve a sense of:


According to Levinson the transition from the teens to early adulthood was marked by two tasks. They are:

exploring possibilities of adult living and developingĀ a stable life structure

What did Levinson's research conclude about women in midlife transition?

There are no real significant differences between how men and how women fare in midlife transition.

Why is the social clock an important consideration when understanding development?

It may differ for different generations and indicate different age ranges for completing developmental tasks.

Of Costa and McCrae's Big Five personality traits, which one is most likely to increase in early and middle adulthood?


Which of the following best summarizes the results of the major of the major longitudinal studies of personality development?

Over time, some aspectsof personality change, whereas others remain stable.

In the Berkely longitudinal studies, which of the following characteristics was generally stable across time for the adult?


In a survey conducted by AARP (2004), divorced adultsreported that hey had generally stayed in their marriages and postponed their divorces because of:

their children

In 2005, just over ____ children in the United States lived with their grandparents as their primary home.

6 million

Middle adulthood is referred to as the sandwich generation because:

middle-aged adults may have to care for their own adolescent children as well as their aging parents.

What is the average life expectancy for individuals born today in the United States?

78 years

In the year 2008, approximately how many people were centenaurians?


Older women are more likelyto have ___ but less likely to have ___ than are older men.

visual problems; hearing problems

Loss of bone mass is associated with:


Which of the following is TRUE concerning nutrition?

Food restrictionin laboratory animals has been shown to increase their life spans.

After age 85, about ___ of adults reside in nursing homes.


Working memory is also called ___ memory.


Which type of memory is less likely to be adversely affected by aging?


____ is knowledge about the practical aspects of life that permits practical judgment about important matters.


Alzheimer disease involves a deficiency in the neurotransmitter:


Erik Erikson believed that people who experience intimacy and generativity in earlier adulthood are more likely to develop ___ in later adulthood.


Erikson believed that elderly adults use their impending death as a motivation to look back and evaluate their life. This form of retrospection is what many theorists call:

life review

Which theory holds the most positive view of the abilities of elderly adults?


Which theory explains why older adults spend most of their time with familiar individuals and family?

socioemotional selectivity theory

As of 2006, the percentage of older peopleliving in poverty was about___.


Gina is doing what she can to help her older aunt take care of herself and stay in her own home. Gina often takes mealsto her aunt and helps her clean, go shopping, and make visits to the doctor. Gina is providing ___ for heraunt.


What percentage of elderly women who live alone live in poverty?


Cohabitation is increasing among ___ and is expected to continue to increase. Cohabitation for this age group may be based on a need for companionshipand a legal sharing of resources without finances being legally joined.

older adults

Which of the following factors combine to form the "double jeopardy" that is noted in this chapter?

ageism and racism

According to research evidence, gender roles in the elderlyyears tend to:

change, with only men becoming more feminine

Levi sustained severe and irreversible brain damage in an auto accident. His wife and his parents decided to remove the life-support system, and Levi subsequently died. this is an example of:

passive euthenasia

The hospice was developed with the goal of:

making the final stage of dying as pain free as possible

Two hundred years ago, what percentage of children died before their 10th birthday?


A person born in 1900 would most likely live until about age:


An emphasis in our culture on using all life-prolonging methods possible, even in the face of certain death, is a sign of our culture's:

denial of death

Elizabeth Kubler-Ross divided the behavior and thinking of dying people into five stages. Which of the following lists these stages in the correct order?

denial and isolation, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance

Marie's sister died 3 years ago. Marie is consitently bothered by sleeping prob;ems, restlessness, and irritability. She often finds herself weeping uncontrollably because she misses her sister so much. Which of the following is probably TRUE of Marie?

She is experiencing an unusually long grief period and should seek help.

Approximately ____ of survivors experience complicated grief reactions.


Three family members are discussing their mother's last days a few days after her funeral. They talk in detail about the symptoms the mother had and her day-to-day decline. Such conversation indicates:

an effort to use grief to understand the death better

There are roughly ____ times more widows than widowers over the age of 85 years in the United States.


The key feature of a successful program that helps widows adjust to the deaths of their spouses is:

involvement of volunteer widows as counselors