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Cultural Anthropology Test 1
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In decending order, what primates are the most related to humans?


Humans, then chimps and binobos, then Gorillas, then Orangutans, then Gibbons. (The farther away from humans, the older)


What are Hominins?


hominids excluding the African apes; all human species that ever existed (Modern humans and our ancestors) Non chimp/ape human ancestors and modern humans.


What are homo sapiens and what characteristics do they have?


Homo Sapiens are primates and have opposable thumbs, symbolic thought, spoken language, and are bipedal, big brained, and social.


What human traits reflect that our primate ancestors lived in trees?


–Grasping ability and manual dexterity
–Depth and color vision to see ripe fruit, depth perception for judging distances between branches when jumping from tree to tree.
-Vision oriented 
–Learning ability based on a large brain
–Substantial parental investment in offspring
–Tendencies toward sociality and cooperation






What are some similarities primates share with humans?


•Ability to learn from experience and change behavior
 
•Tools turn up among several nonhuman species
 
•Other primates are habitual hunters

* social groups/hierarchies
* tendencies toward sociality and cooperation


What are some differences between primates and humans?


–Substantial gap between primate society and fully developed human culture
–Cooperation and sharing are much more developed among humans
–Human females lack a visible estrus cycle and ovulation is concealed

*Humans mate throughout the year while primates ovulate at one time
•Human pair bonds for mating are more exclusive and durable than those of chimps
•Humans have rules of exogamy (marriage) and kinship

*We're bipedal (walk upright)

*We have a huge brain for our body size

*We have symbolic thought (burials)

*We have spoken language




When did humans split from common ancestor of chimps?


6 million years ago


When was Australopithecines around?


4-2 million years ago


When did Homo (our genus) come about?


2.4 million years ago


When did Homo Sapiens first appear?


about 200,000 years ago in Africa


What was Australopithecines?


small brained (chimp size)

small bodied

bipedal

A. afarensis (Lucy)

Lived in easern and southern Africa


What was Homo habilis?


First tool makers (probably)
 
• Although new evidence suggests Australopithecines made tools.
• Small bodied and but brains are bigger than Australopithecines.


What was Homo erectus?


Larger brained (not quite us)
• Larger bodied
• Spread throughout Africa and into Asia
• But H. erectus expanded tool use, used fire.

* First we see with modern body proportions and first to leave Africa.


What were Neandertals?


Homo neanderthalensis
• Successful, cold adapted species -survived from 600,000 to 30,000 years ago.
• Thick bodied
• Large brained
• Lived in Europe and Asia
• Genetic evidence shows some interbreeding with humans.
• Had symbolic culture and ability for language.

*Twice as big as humans with more muscle, so needed twice as much calories.


What are anatomically modern humans?


• Modern Homo sapiens
• Compared to other hominin species we are gracile bodied (slim), big brained, small gutted, tool using, social, generalized diet.
• Genetic studies show all humans are descended from a small group of humans in Africa 200,000 years ago.
• Archaeology shows generalized diet going back 200,000 in southern Africa.
• Young and relatively genetically uniform species (homogenus) because of the bottleneck effect

*had to have some sort of water transport to get to Australia (though no evidence)

*exploitation of marine resources (fishing)


In what order did Homo Sapiens spread around the world from Africa?


First to Asia and Australia, then to Europe, and finally to the Americas.


What are examples of modern human behavior?



•Tool complexity

•Art (ochre and figurines)

•Broad exploitation of resources (like modern hunter gatherers)

•Long distance exchange

•Bone tools

•Earliest clear evidence is around 60-70 kya but certain elements may come earlier


Where is Blombos Cave and why is it significant?


It's in South Africa and has the earliest evidence of fully "modern" behavior shown through eaten shellfish and sea mamals (seals and dolphins), shell beads, bone tools, and an incised piece of ochre (piece of ochre w/ scratched design on it).


What is the Chave Cave and where is it located?


It has the earliest cave paintings in Europe and it is in France. It is not the cave with the virtual tour.


What is Lascaux?


Cave system in France with the virtual tour. Has different sections of the cave devoted to different types of cave paintings.


When did the first food production start?


10,000 years ago

farming with multiple independent beginnings


When did cities begin to emerge?


5,000 years ago with multiple independent begginnings


What are the keys to Human success with taking over the world?


Flexible: adaptation to different environments and conditions.

Humans inhabit every terrestrial ecosystem.

We adapt quickly because can adapt to our environment culturally instead of biologically like other animals


How do we adapt so fast and why do we have so much diversity?


Because of culture


What is culture?





•Culture: The shared manner in which a group of people cognitively organize their world.
•Culture is how you habitually make symbolic connections to things.

Basically anything we do as humans as a member of a society.

It's shared and learned.

Everything in culture is symbolic and ppl outside of your culure won't know what the symbols are. Ex. bald eagle vs. the quetzal in South America


•Tylor: Cultures–systems of human behavior and thought–  obey natural laws, so they
can be studied scientifically


What is enculturation?


the process by
which a child learns his or her culture


What are some characteristics of Culture?


Learned
• Symbolic
• Shared
• Always changing
• Holistic - encompasses everything we do

• Integrated


What does human cultural learning depend on?


Human cultural learning depends on the uniquely developed human capacity to use symbols



Symbolic thought is unique and crucial to cultural learning


Where is culture located, how is it transmitted, and what is the effect of culture being shared?



•Culture is located in and transmitted through groups

•Shared beliefs, values, memories, and expectations link people who grow up in the same culture

•Enculturation unifies people by providing common experiences


How does culture interact/affect nature?



•Culture takes natural biological urges and teaches us how to express them in particular ways
•Our culture affect the ways in which we perceive nature, human nature, and the natural world
•No 1:1 correlation between culture and environment
•Different cultures can adapt in unique ways to similar environments
•Cultural practices change the environment.


What does it mean to say that culture is integrated?


Cultures are integrated, patterned systems (If one part changes, other parts change as well)


What does it mean to say that culture is All-Encompassing?



Anthropologically, culture encompasses features sometimes regarded as trivial or unworthy of serious study


How can culture be both adaptive and maladaptive?



•Humans have biological and
cultural ways of coping with environmental stress


–What’s good for an individual isn’t
necessarily good for the group

–Adaptive behavior that offers short-term benefits to particular individuals may
harm the environment and threaten
the group’s long-term survival



Are there culural universals and, if so, can they have variability in different cultures? Explain.


Yes,



•Features found in every culture; more or less distinguish Homo sapiens from other species

•We tend to think of culture as being natural.

•However, there is greater variability than we can appreciate.


Example

•Incest is generally a universal taboo

•But what is considered incest varies among cultures depending on kinship systems.



What is the difference between universal, general, and particularity?


Universals are true in all cultures, while generals are true for a lot of cultures and particularities are things unique to a specific culture.


What are particularities?


things unique to a specific culture


Why does culture change constantly?


It is contested (Ex. protesting)

Culture is public and individual

Day-to-day actions make and remake culture

Individuals within a society have diverse motives


What is real culture?


How culture actually is practiced


What is ideal culture?


What people say or think their culture is


What is the difference between ideal and real culture?


Real is how culture actually is practiced, while ideal is how people say their culture is practiced.


What are the three levels of culture?


National culture, International culture, and subcultures.


What is national culture?


cultural features shared by citizens of the same nation


What is international culture?



cultural traditions that extend beyond national boundaries. Ex. McDonald's


What are subcultures?


identifiable cultural patterns existing within a larger culture. Ex. treckies, otakus


What is Ethnocentrism?


a tendency to view
one’s own culture as superior
and to use one’s own standards
and values in judging outsiders


What is Cultural relativism?


inappropriate
to use outside standards to judge behavior in a given society; such behavior should be evaluated in the context of the culture in which it occurs


What are the three main mechanisms of cultural change?


Diffusion, Acculturation, and Independent invention.


What is Diffusion?


borrowing from other cultures (kung fu movie style fight scenes in Hollywood movies) (direct vs. indirect, forced vs. unforced)


What is Acculturation?


exchange and mixing of cultural traditions through direct contact (Ex.: Cajun food – mix of African and European cooking traditions using local foods)


What is Independent invention?


independent invention of agriculture in the Middle east, Mexico, and China. Independent invention of pyramids around the world
 


What is Cultural Evolution?



cultural change, not improvement

Not unilinear- culture does not evolve in one direction from primitive to advanced.

Many ways cultures can change, many different factors, unpredictable

No culture is more “advanced” than another culture

There are no “primitive” cultures – if you are alive today, you are modern.


What is Globalization?



•a series of processes that work to make modern nations and people increasingly interlinked and mutually dependent
 
•Economic and political forces
•Long-distance communication
•Local people must increasingly cope with forces generated by progressively larger systems


Who is Boas?


Guy who realized that it wasn't native ppl who were changing the way they said the name for certain things in their language, but that the researchers weren't hearing the sounds right due to sound blindness.

We distinguish stimuli based on how accustomed we are to them
• Stimuli are relative
• Fieldwork with Inuit and Pacific Northwest
• Inconsistencies in transcription year to year and among nationalities of researchers.

Big Picture: Perceptions are distinguished by habit. Culture (your habit of thinking) determines how you perceive the world, even down to the sounds you hear


What is sound blindness?


Researchers noted that people in other cultures were unable to distinguish sounds.

Fan = fang = fell = fop

Proof of genetic inferiority (in 19th century “science”)

Big Picture: Perceptions are distinguished by habit. Culture (your habit of thinking) determines how you perceive the world, even down to the sounds you hear


What theory in Anthropology did Morgan and Tylor have? (what were they)


Evolutionary perspectives (applied Darwin's theory of evolution to culture)


What theory in Anthropology did Boas have? (what was he)


Historical perspective


What theory in Anthropology did Malinowski and Radcliffe-Brown have? (what were they)


Functionalists


What happened during the age of exploration?


When Europeans first encountered diversity they didn't have science at the forefront of their mind and only had the bible to look at for an explanation.
Explaining diversity within the Bible such as the tower of babylon creating multiple languages or the lost tribe of Israel.
Understanding cultures for conversion and colonial administration


What happened during the Enlightenment?



  • Philosophers such as Hobbes and Rousseau

  • Went beyond the Bible in explaining human diversity

  • Used diversity to understand the fundamental nature of humanity.




How do anthropologists do field work?


They do ethnographies. study cultures like our project.


What are ways of studying modern societies?


Ethnographic studies. Emerce yourself in the culture, Live with the people you're studying, LEARN THEIR LANGUAGE!!!


What was the theory of Evolutionists? (Evolutionism)



  • (Mis)Applied Darwin’s On the Origins of Species (1859) to culture



  • Darwin’s idea: descent with modification

  • Works great for biology

  • Misapplied as an analogy for culture.

  • Misapplied as “survival of the fittest” to culture

  • Linked culture to biology

  • Fittest must be those who are most powerful

  • Tried to explain diversity through who is most powerful

  • Why do “we” have railroads and “they” use stone tools?

  • Promoted racist, colonial worldview

  • Unilineal Evolution

  • Armchair anthropologists




What did Herbert Spencer do?



  • Self taught thinker used his take on Darwin’s evolution to figure out everything

  • Unilineal evolution -simple to complex (this is untrue)




What did Louis Henry Morgan do?



  • Befriended and studied the customs of local Seneca

  • First to develop kinship studies and did earliest Ethnography done by an actual scientist.

  • Came up with the progression of unilinear evolution: savagery (pre agriculture), barbarism (have agriculture and pottery), and civilization (have writing system).




What is unilinear evolution and who invented it?


Created by Louis Henry Morgan.

  • Unilinear evolutionism: human society has evolved through savagery (pre agriculture), barbarism (agriculture and pottery), and civilization (writing system)

  • Used examples from history and ethnography for the stages.

  • Stages based on technology and social institutions

  • Stages corresponded to mental ability




Who was Edward Burnett Tylor?



  • Humans improve over time (go from simple to complex)

  • Seperated biology and culture saying All humans are biologically equal (distinct from other Evolutionists)



  • Focused on “survivals” (things that remain in our culture from a previous stage Ex. savagery)- archaic elements that survive in modern culture

  • Had a unilinearcultural path: animism (belief that things have souls), polyism, monotheism, then science which was like religion and would eventually take over and disprove all religion.

  • Offered definition of culture and proposed it as a topic that could be studied scientifically




Why were evolutionists wrong?



  • 1. Culture ≠ Biology

  • 2. Humans are very biologically uniform

  • 3. Biological evolution can be used as an analogy for cultural change rather than as a direct explanation




What  is Independent invention?


independent invention of agriculture in the Middle east, Mexico, and China. Independent
invention of pyramids around the world


Cultural Evolution



•Means cultural change, not improvement
• Not unilinear
•Many ways cultures can change, many different factors, unpredictable
• No culture is more “advanced” than another culture
•There are no “primitive” cultures – if you are alive today, you are modern.


What is Globalization?



•a series of processes that work to make modern nations and
people increasingly interlinked and mutually dependent

•Economic and political forces

•Long-distance communication

•Local people must increasingly cope with forces generated by progressively larger systems


What did Boas do?


Discovered sound blindness. We distinguish stimuli based on how accustomed we are to them
•Stimuli are relative
•Fieldwork with Inuit and Pacific Northwest
•Inconsistencies in transcription year to year and among nationalities of researchers.
Big Picture: Perceptions are distinguished by habit
•Culture (your habit of thinking) determines how you perceive the world
evendown to the sounds you hear


What is sound blindness?


Researchers
noted that people in other cultures were unable to distinguish sounds.  Fan= fang = fell = fop

Proof of genetic inferiority (in 19th
century “science”)

Big Picture:
Perceptions are distinguished by habit
•Culture (your habit of thinking) determines how you perceive the world
evendown to the sounds you hear


What is Language?



•The primary means of communication (spoken or written)

•Transmitted through learning as part of enculturation
•Based on arbitrary, learned associations between words and the things they represent


•Language
is both verbal and physical symbolic communication
•Body language, Kinesics

•Writing
is a part of language but it is relatively new and culturally specific

•Language
is a key element of being human

•Although
other animals communicate, human language is uniquely complex





What are three things culture and language have in common?


Language and culture are deeply interrelated

Like culture, Language is:

Symbolic
Social
Constantly changing      


What does language allow humans to do?


–Conjure up elaborate images
–Discuss the past and future
–Share experiences with others
–Benefit from their experiences


How do nonhumans communicate?



•Call Systems

•Sign language: (Washoe •Lucy, Koko, Kanzi)


What is important about Washoe (chimpanzee)?


–First nonhuman to learn American Sign Language (1960s)
–Learned approx. 350 words
–Taught her adopted son and others some signs

Created novel combinations of words




What is important about lucy (the chimpanzee not the fossil)?



•Lucy (chimpanzee) was raised as a human child

•She would eat with silverware, make tea, flip through magazines

•Learned close to 140 words

•She was observed lying to researchers
         –Conversation where she would not admit that a pile of feces was hers


What is important about Koko (gorilla)?


–Said to understand and use 1,000 signs and understand 2,000 human words (spoken)
–Novel combinations of words (finger-bracelet)
–Loves cats and keeps them as pets/children
•When one of them died – Koko signed “frown, cry, frown, sad”





What is important about Kanzi (bonobo)?



•Taught lexicon system of symbols

•Understands complex spoken requests

•Learned some sign language from watching videos of Koko


What are some commonalities among nonhuman sign language?



•Non-human language use is limited to words and short phrases

•Human grammar -  sentence structure is non-existent
•They do have the mental capacity to form novel (untaught) combinations of words

 


What caused us to be able to develop the ability to speak?



•A mutated gene, FOXP2, helps explain why
humans speak but chimps do not


What is the FOXP2 gene and what does it do?


It's a mutated gene that helps explain why humans speak but chimps do not.


What is Broca's area and what does it do?


It's the structure in the brain that controls motor production of language.    

–Damage causes confused speech - they know what they want to say, but can’t get it out


What happens in individuals with a damaged Broca's area?


–Damage causes confused speech - they know what they want to say, but can’t get it out


What is Wernicke's area and what does it do?


structure in the brain that controls auditory speech comprehension

–Damage causes inability to comprehend incoming language stimuli




How does a damaged Wernicke's area affect an individual?


–Damage causes inability to comprehend incoming language stimuli


What is Kinesics?



•the study of nonverbal communication through body movements, stances, gestures, and facial expressions


How is language fundamental to humanity and what do we use it for?



•Language allows communicating complex symbolic ideas

•Allows planning – can communicate hypothetical situations

•Communication of inner thoughts and abstract ideas

•Allows humans to form wide social networks


What are some features of Language?



•Human language is made up of discrete bits of meaning

•Human language is arbitrary.

•Displacement: Language can refer to distant things

•Openness: Language can describe abstract or unprecedented things that you can picture in your head even if you've never seen it before.

•Prevarication: People can lie.

- It's deeply rooted in culture

- It's constantly changing

- Affects how you're perceived socially (Ex. Southern Red Neck accent)


What do Linguist and Linguistic Anthropologists do?



•study various elements of language

•Language follows a logical systematic structure, which can be decoded


What is Phonology?



the study of a language’s speech sounds


What is a Phone?


a sound


What is a Phoneme?


a sound contrast that makes a difference or differentiates meaning

a sound that has meaning. The part of language where you get different meanings (Ex. bit vs pit- the bi and the pi sounds make the words mean different things)


What is Phonetics?


the study of human speech sounds in general
Works in every language. Sounding out a word and writing the sounds down phonetically. Disecting words.


What is Phonemics?


studies only the significant sound contrasts of a given language
Breaking down sounds used in a specific language and use thar ro understand that specific language.


What is a morpheme?



  • The smallest recognizable unit of meaning in a language (Includes words and modifiers such as prepositions)




What is a lexicon?



  • The vocabulary or words in a language




What is syntax?



  • How you arrange words in a language; grammar




What do linguistic anthropologists study?



  • Linguistic Anthropologists study how a language is actually used

  • Real vs. Ideal




What are the different levels of organization of spoken language?



  • Phonology

  • Morphology

  • Lexicon

  • Syntax




Who was Ferdinand de Saussure?



  • Swiss Linguist



  • Course in General Linguistics (1916)



  • Sign (like the physical "open" sign in a restaurant window) vs. Signifier (like the meaning behind the sign aka "come in and eat"), Signified vs. Referent

  • Language is Arbitrary 

  • Principle applies for all elements of language

  • Set the stage for structuralism




What is a Linguistic sign?


composed of a sign and a signifier. The connection between sign and signifier is arbitrary
Ex. Open sign in a restaurant window is a physical phonetic word, but at the same time means "come in and eat".


What is a sign?


The phonic component of a word
Ex. The word "Open" on a sign in a restaurant window


What is a signifier?



  • The ideational component of a word; the idea behind a word




What is glottochronology?



  • phonetic changes over time (glottochronology)

  • chronology (or timeline) of languages. Language changes often follow migrations.




What do Historical Linguistics study?



  • Studies how language changes over time



  • Looks at phonetic changes over time (glottochronology)



  • Looks at relatedness and divergence of languages over time



  • Can reconstruct protolanguages and show relatedness among languages



  • By studying contemporary daughter languages; language loss



  • Can track migration and interaction among language groups




What is the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis?



  • Different languages produce different patterns of thought



  • Habitual language patterns structure thought patterns of a group



  • Examples:




    • Masculine/feminine markings in Romance languages

    • Native American languages tense –continuing or completed versus European present and past tense.

    • Direction. Behind, in front, left, right versus strict 





Who is Noam Chompsky?


Pioneer of cognitive Linguistics
Went for a more universal, cross cultural approach- What is the same in languages around the world? What do languages have in common?
looked at universal grammar: a common, universal cognitive structural basis for language in humans. Evidenced by similar structure of pidgin and creole languages. Evidenced by language acquisition by children.
Humans have an innate cognitive ability to learn language. Babies are sponges for language. How babies aquire and learn language is universal.


What is focal vocabulary?


specialized sets of terms and distinctions that are particularly important to certain groups
certain words that are only used in a certain subculture, like anime terms or trecky terms, that people outside that culture wouldn't understand what you're talking about. 


What is semantics?


language’s meaning system



What is meaning (in language)?


Speakers of particular languages
use sets of terms to organize their
experiences and perceptions



What is Ethnosemantics?


the study of how speakers of particular languages use sets of terms to organize their experiences and perceptions
Ex. science categorizes plants by physical/biological characteristics, where as indigenous people categorize plants based on their use.


What does sociolinguistics study?




    • Investigates the relationships between social and linguistic variation, or language in its social context



Looks at how people use language


  • Focuses on features that vary systematically with social position and situation

  • Linguistic change does not occur in a vacuum but in society

  • Ex. you talk to your friends differently than your parents or boss


Language used to mark social identity- Ex. someone with a redneck accent percieved as stupid.
Explores issues of: social stratification, gender, power relationships, and more


What are two ways of communicating status with language?


Dialects and honorifics
Style shifts: varying speech in different contexts
Diglossia: regular style shifts between “high” and “low”  status dialects

  • We rank certain speech patterns as “better” or “worse,” because we recognize their use by groups that we also rank




What are style shifts?


varying speech in different contexts
Single individuals may change the way they talk, depending upon the social requirements of a given setting




What is Diglossia?


regular style shifts between “high” and “low”  status dialects


  • We rank certain speech patterns as “better” or “worse,” because we recognize their use by groups that we also rank.

  • Ex. formal talk vs. bar talk




What is Linguistic relativiy?


argues that all dialects are equally effective as systems of communication



Who is William Labov?


William Labov studied American English dialects
Social linguist
Looked at issues of class stratification and language
Studied African American English (AAE)/Black English Vernacular (BEV) and showed its internal, systematic logic. Noticed they frequently dropped their r's like "you good" instead of "you're good".


What is BEV?


Black English Vernacular- common black way of speaking in the U.S.


What were the results from Labov's BEV study on sociolinguistics and Stratification?


Looked at 3 department stores and found that the more pricey the store, the less BEV speaking workers worked there.


How do males and females differ in speech?


Women use better grammar. Men use more double negaives. Men and women differ in body language when talking and speech patterns. 
In a classroom setting, women will wait for teacher to finish talking before raising their hand, while men just blurt out what they want to say.
Cultures around the world mark gender with language.


What is Ethnopoetics?



  • looks at narrative style and poetic devices of different genres of speech. How poems and narratives are structured give you information on the cuture. A lot of cultures place high importance on being able to speak well.



  • Subanun Drinking Talk

  • Subanan, a group from a Philippine island of Mindanao

  • Men play ritualized drinking games that cumulate in displays of verbal artistry

  • Social status depends on successfully drinking and talking




What are some of the main elements of Maya story telling?



  • Formal openning and closing (Ex. Once Upon a Time...)

  • A "backstep in time"- instead of telling a story in past tense, they "pick up the story" and move it back to another time and continue telling in present tense. 

  • Tends to have co‐narrators with multiple points of view; story is a conversation (Compared to European single narrator style story telling)

  • Paired words and parallel phrases as emphasis for important parts of a story




What is culture?


The shared manner in which a group of people cognitively organize the world.
The shared manner in which people habitually make symbolic connections.


What is an ethnic group?


a gathering whose members share certain beliefs,
values, habits, customs, and norms because of their common background.
defined by the people who are part of the group.


What is ethnicity?


identification with, and feeling part of, an ethnic group and exclusion from certain other groups because of this affiliation.
Whatever group you feel you belong to. Unlike race, this can change throughout your life based on what people you associate with.
 


What is a status?


one’s position in society



What is achieved status?


a status one earns through the course of life (eg. college graduate).
Ex. student, friend, employee, dorm resident


What is ascribed status?


a status one is born into (eg. royalty, race).
Ex. sister, African American, 19 years old, female
Minorities often ascribed lower status. Causes racial categories to be created by the majority race and eventually to racism.


What is race?


an ethnic group assumed to have a biological basis



What is racism?


discrimination against an ethnic group, assumed
to have a biological basis



What is racial classification?


an attempt to assign humans to discrete categories based on common ancestry



What is Biological race?



  • theoretically, subdivision of a species that is geographically isolated

  • Race supposedly reflects shared genetic material

  • Early scholars used phenotype: an organism’s evident traits




What is a phenotype?


an organism’s evident traits. physical expression of a gene, physical traits



What are freckles?


melanine clusters


Who put race into and evolutionary system in the 19th century? (the Race Concept)



  • Race was put into an evolutionary system by Evolutionists in the 19th century.

  • Apex of behavior was the “white race” -specifically white, Christian, northern Europeans.



  • (the evolutionists were from U.K. and the U.S.)




The Race Concept



  • The modern race concept was based on colonialism

  • Explained how some came to power over others and the variability seen in the world

  • Justified power relations of the colonizers and the colonized

  • Justified slavery

  • sciences (including anthropology) reinforced the race concept.

  • Was believed that race determined behavior (i.e., behavior linked to physical traits)




What is phrenology?



  • Head shape determines behavior, ergo…

  • Behavior linked to physical traits.

  • Would measure your head to see what kind of person you are, sorta like gypsy palm reading.




How do we define racial categories?



  • Traditional racial classification assumes biological characteristics determined by heredity and were stable

  • Skin color is the primary criteria in the United States

  • Hair texture is a major category in parts of Latin America




What are some problems with the race concept?



  • The obvious problem with racial
    labels is that they don’t
    accurately describe skin color

  • Many populations do not fit neatly
    into any of the three “great races”

  • Phenotypic similarities and differences do not necessarily have a genetic basis

  • Race is supposed to describe genetic variation, but racial categories have been based on phenotypes, but Phenotypes do not = genotypes




What is a genotype?


a genetic trait (not necessarily expressed)


T/F- Skin color is a biological trait influenced by several genes?


True


What is Melanin?


“natural sun screen” produced by skin cells responsible for pigmentation



What does Melanin do?


By screening out ultraviolet (UV)
radiation from sun, melanin offers
protection against a variety of maladies, including sunburn and skin cancer. Protects folates. 



What did Loomis do?


focused on role of UV radiation in stimulating vitamin D



What did Jablonski and Chaplin do?



  • explained how geographic distribution of skin color involved effects of UV on folate, used to manufacture folic acid



  • Variation in human skin color:




    • Protects against all UV hazards

    • Provides adequate supply of vitamin D





What are the advantages of Dark Skin Color?


natural sunscreen
In tropics:

  • screens out UV

  • rdeuces susceptibility to folate destructionand thus to NTDs like spina bifida

  • Prevents sunburn and thus enhances sweating and thermo regulation, reduces disease susceptibility, and reduces risk of skin cancer




What are the disadvantages of having Dark Skin Color?


Outside tropics:

  • reduce UV absorption

  • Increases suceptibility to: rickets, osteoporosis due to vitamin D deficiency




What are the advantages to light skin color?


Outside tropics:

  • admits UV so body can manufacture vitamin D, preventing rickets and osteoporosis




What are the disadvantages to having light skin color?


No natural sunscreen 

  • Increases susceptibility to: folate destruction and thus NTDs like spina bifida, impared spermatogenesis

  • Sunburn and thus impaired: sweating- poor thermoregulation, increased disease susceptibility, and skin skin cancer.




What has more variability? Within populations or between them?



  • More variability in terms of genetics within populations than betweenthem

  • Race is based on phenotypic characterization and identity rather than genetics, so just cause you share physical traits, doesn't mean you're genetically the same.




What has the greatest affect on behavior? Is it affected by genetics? Does it have anything to do with phenotypes?



  • Phenotypic traits, like skin color, have nothing to do with behavior

  • Behavior is complex, hard for genetics to directly affect it



  • Culture has the greatest effect on behavior




Who challenged the Race Concept?



  • In the late 19th century W.E.B. DuBois and Boas independently challenged the race concept

  • Boas and his students holistically attacked the concept with data: physical, cultural, linguistic (like “On Alternating Sounds”) 




What does race do?



  • The race concept draws lines in human variability

  • Cultural -Race concepts are cultural divisions of human diversity

  • cause increase segregation and isolation between groups. The majority race is correct in almost every culture.




How do Race and Culture affect each other?



  • Your race ≠ your culture

  • Race is a cultural concept and your culturally assigned race can have effects

  • People culturally identify with race

  • Race is a cultural institution and reality

  • Racial categorization and segregation can make cultural realities

  • People identify with racial groups because racial groups are culturally real

  • Distinct African American culture and linguistics with African influences -based on culture rather than genetics




What are the effects of Modern Race Concept?



  • As a social and cultural reality, race has very real effects on peoples lives

  • Discrimination and social stratigraphy

  • Race system served to reinforce slavery, segregation and other institutions

  • Social stress from race affects health- can cause health problems.




What is the Rule of Descent?


assigns one’s social identity on basis of ancestry



What is hypodescent?



  • “One Drop Rule”



  • automatically places children of a union or
    mating between members of
    different groups into a minority group

  • Divides U.S. society into groups unequal in access to wealth, power, and prestige




What is the "one drop"?



  • automatically places children of a union or
    mating between members of
    different groups into a minority group

  • Divides U.S. society into groups unequal in access to wealth, power, and prestige




Canadian Census



  • Canadian census asks about
    “visible minorities"

  • “persons, other than Aboriginal
    peoples [a.k.a. First Nation in
    Canada, Native Americans in the
    United States], who are non-Caucasian
    in race or non-white in colour”

  • Canada’s visible minority population has been increasing steadily




Brazillian Census



  • The Brazilian construction of race attuned to relatively slight phenotypic differences (skin color and hair type)

  • Individual’s racial classification
    may change due to achieved
    status, developmental biological
    changes, other irregular factors.

  • No hypodescent rule ever developed
    in Brazil to ensure that whites and
    blacks remained separate.




What is a nation?


a society sharing a language, religion, history, territory, ancestry, and kinship



What is a nation-state?



  • a stratified society
    with a formal, central government



  • Migration, conquest, and colonialism led most nation-states not to be ethnically homogeneous




What are nationalities?



  • groups that now
    have, or wish to have or regain, autonomous political status


    • Imagined communities

    • Language and print played crucial roles
      in European national consciousness

    • Colonialism often erected boundaries
      that corresponded poorly with
      preexisting cultural divisions



  • similar to ethnic groups, but on a bigger scale.




What is assimilation?



  • when a minority adopts the patterns and norms of a host culture

  • Incorporates into the dominant culture to the at which it no longer exists as a separate cultural unit

  • With assimilation, you get plural societies (Ex. indigenous people who were there before colonizing nation and identify with their culture, not colonizing culture)




What is a plural society?



  • a society combining ethnic contrasts, ecological specialization, and economic interdependence

  • Barth: ethnic boundaries are most stable and enduring when groups occupy different ecological niches

  • Shifted focus from specific cultural practices and values to relations between ethnic groups



  • (Ex. indigenous people who were there before colonizing nation and identify with their culture, not colonizing culture)




What is multiculturalism?



  • the view of cultural diversity as being valuable and worth maintaining

  • In U.S. and Canada is of growing importance

  • Multiculturalism seeks ways for people to understand and interact with a respect for differences




What is prejudice?



  • devaluing a group because of its assumed behavior, values, capabilities, or attributes




What are stereotypes?


fixed ideas about what
the members of a group are like



What is discrimination?


policies and practices that harm a group and its members
2 types:

  • De facto: practiced but
    not legally sanctioned

  • De jure: part of the law


 


What is De facto?


Discrimination that is practiced but not legally sanctioned



What is De jure?


Discrimination that is part of the law


What is the difference between new arrivals vs long-standing groups of immigrants in the U.S.?


long time ago italians were predjudiced against, now they've been here a long time and the predjudice has shifted to the new immigrant group Mexicans.


What is genocide?


deliberate elimination of a group



What is ethnocide?


attempt to destroy cultures of certain ethnic groups



What is ethnic expulsion?


aims at removing from a country groups that are culturally different



What are refugees?


people who are forced or who have chosen to flee a country


What is Cultural colonialism?



  • internal domination by one group and
    its culture or ideology over others

  • One group controlling and dominating the culture and belief systems of a nation.










What is social Darwanism?


Led to forced sterilizations of the disabled and minorities in the U.S.

Resulted from Evolutionists

•Genocide (the Holocaust) in Europe
•Shows consequences of scientific ideas, especially regarding people


What did Franz Boas do (in general)?



•Franz Boas was the father of four-field U.S. anthropology
•Focus on fieldwork and data collection
•Deemphasized grand unifying theories like those of the Evolutionists
•Showed that human biology was plastic
•Ruth Benedict: Civilization is the
achievement of no single race

Discounted the idea of biological race

said you need a history of each culture. You need to understand a culture's histor to understad how the culture is today. Each culture has its own history. Finding it requires intensive fieldwork.


What are the boasian ideas?



•Historical particularism: Histories are not compatible; diverse paths can lead to same cultural result

•Fieldwork: Intense study of specific cultures

•Rejection of race concept, universalist theories, and Evolutionists

•Diffusion as mechanism of cultural change

•Used data to deconstruct the race concept, which was at the core of Evolutionism
Solidified the culture concept as a way to explain human variability


How did Evolutionists see cultural change?


as progress


How did Boasians explain cltural change?


•explained cultural change through diffusion
•Vague concept of acquiring cultural traits from other groups


What did Evolutionists stress to explain cultural generalities?


stressed independent invention to explain cultural generalities


What did Boasians stress to explain cultural generalities?



•stressed diffusion
–Culture trait
–Trait complexes
–Culture area
–Historical particularism and
diffusion were complementary.


What is configurationalism?



•View of culture as integrated and patterned


What did Benedict and Mead do?


Boas' students
•Traits might not spread if they met environmental barriers or were not accepted by a culture
•Were more interested in describing how cultures are uniquely patterned or configured than in explaining how they got that way


What is functionalism?



•British based school of thought
focusing on the role of sociocultural practices in social systems

•Based on intensive fieldwork

•Made arguments about human diversity that went beyond historical particularism
about the idividual

Looked at culture as a whole

Everything in a culture is geared to meet the people's biological needs



Who is Broislaw Malinowski?



•Functionalist -Culture works in different ways to satisfy universal biological needs

•Cultural traits functioned as a system and were related

•Worked with Trobriand Islanders


Who are Radcliffe-Brown ad Evans-pritchard?



•Structural Functionalism

•Looked at cultures as a system with an internal logic

•Cultural practices functioned to maintain a system, to preserve the social structure

•Example: Totems function to maintain social solidarity


What is structural functionalism?


about the culture as a whole (the entire system)

everything in a culture serves a purpose/function, which is to maintain/work for the entire culture

Ex. culture is like the bod and myths, rituals, etc. are like organs that work to sustain the body.


What is neoevotlutionism?



•White and Steward (1950) reintroduced evolution with the study of culture.

evolution happens in culture (change over time)

Multilinear evoltion- evolution happens in culture but the culture doesn't have to change in a certain direction (aka doesn't have to go savage, barbarism, civilization)

Every culture has infrastructure (basic info like what you eat and your technology/hunter gatherer, agriculture, etc.)


What is multilinear evolution?


evolution happens in culture but the culture doesn't have to change in a certain direction (aka doesn't have to go savage, barbarism, civilization)




What did White do?


neo evolutionist


–General evolution—energy capture is the main measure and cause of cultural advance.


What is general evolution?


energy capture is the main measure and cause of cultural advance.


What did Steward do?


–multilinear evolution,
culture evolved along different lines.
•Also a pioneer in cultural ecology,
known as ecological anthropology
neoevolutionist




What is Cultural Materialism?



•The cultural infrastructure determines both structure and superstructure.

The cake theory (infrastructure to structure to superstructure)

the base layer determines the complexity going up in a structure Ex. hunter gatherer is the base layer. Then everyone doing same amount of work causes everyone to be equal in your society which equals your middle layer. Then your social beliefs/customs like religion are simple like animism.


What is structure (cultural materialism)?


•Structure: Social relations grow out of the society’s infrastructure.


What is Superstructure (cultural materialism)?


Religion, ideology, and play are all determined by structure and infrastructure


What is Symbolic Anthropology?


the study of symbols in their social and cultural context


What did Turner do?



•recognized links between symbolic anthropology (the study of symbols in their social and cultural context) and social psychology, psychology, and psychoanalysis

says what is this symbol, what does it mean to everyone in this culture? Ex. what does soul food contain?


What did Geertz do?



Interpretive anthropology defines culture as ideas based on cultural learning and symbols.

says you have to look at what a symbol means to each individual in a culture. Ex. soul food includes the same specific foods, but means different things to people who've grown up on it and people who haven't


What is structuralism?



•Human minds have certain universal characteristics originating in common features of Homo sapiens’s brain

•Symbolic analysis of myth and ritual

•Looked at symbolic patterns to find the underlying logic of a culture:
•One tale can be converted into another:
•Convert a positive element into a negative
•Reverse the order of elements
•Replace a male hero with a female one
•Preserve key elements.


what did Claude Levi-Strauss do?


Human minds have certain universal characteristics originating in common features of Homo sapiens’s brain.

Structuralism


What is emic?


inside point of view


What is postmodernism?


•Rejection of positivism of modernism -rejected the idea of objectivity
•Questions the bias of the observer
•Focus on the views of “subalterns” -understudied groups, women, queer studies, the poor

there's no way you can be objective because every researcher has their own bias.


What is the processual Approach?


Postmodern

agency (one person with a lot of power like a dictator can change an entire culture) and Practice Theory



What is the world-systems theory?


Postmodern

economics,
politics, and history


What are four ethnographic techniques?



1.Direct, firsthand observation (Participant Observation)

2.Conversation

3.Detailed work with key consultants
In-depth interviewing


What does logitudinal mean?


long-term (etthnographic research)


What is Multi-Scalar?


•Culture affected by many factors, some outside individual community


What is the Emic approach?


(native oriented)

investigates how natives think, categorize the world, express
thoughts, and interpret stimuli


What is the Etic approach?


(science oriented)



•emphasizes the categories, interpretations, and features that the anthropologist considers important


what is exogamy?


marriage