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Bio 202: Midterm Review
Dsmith

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luconeogenesis occurs in the liver due to the action of:


cortisol


Release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism


oxytocin


Sometimes prolonged excessive exposure to high hormone concentrations causes a phenomenon known as:


Down-Regulation


The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is not a true endocrine gland because:


It is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release


Steroid hormones exert their action by:


Entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene


The second-messenger mechanism of hormone action operates by:


Binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP


Thyroid hormone (a small iodinated amine) enters target cells in a manner similar to:


Steroid hormones, because both diffuse easily in to target cells


The major targets of growth hormone are:


Bones and skeletal muscles


Which organ is responsible for synthesizing ANP?


Heart


The most important regulator of electrolyte concentrations in extracellular fluids is:


Aldosterone


Does calmodulin  act as a second messenger in second-messenger systems of hormone action?


no


Can An amino acid derivative  be a hormone.


yes


In circumstances where the body requires prolonged or increased levels of a hormone, the DNA of target cells will specify the synthesis of more receptors on the surface of the cells of the target organ. This is known as:


Up-Regulation


The liver is affected b which hormone


the Thyroid hormone


Thyroxine is dfferent from other peptide hormones because


It does not require a second messenger to effect a response


Catecholamines and/or peptide hormones bind to receptors on the surface of cells that comprise target organs. This binding causes:


Adenylate cyclase to generate cyclic AMP from ATP.


Glucocorticoids enable the body to deal appropriately with stress. They accomplish this by:


Increasing blood glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid levels and enhancing blood pressure


What ion is sometimes used as a second messenger of amino acid-base hormones?


Calcium


A hormone that regulates gamete production


FSH


Steroids or amino acid-based molecules released into the blood, which arouse tissues


Hormones


These produce testosterone


testes


Its primary function is to control the rate of body meta- bolism and cellular oxidation


Thyroid Hormone TH


Synthesize insulin


Pancreas


Consists of two functional areas: the adenohypophysis and the neurohypophysis.


Pituitary gland


Controlled by the sympathetic nervous system and release epinephrine and norepinephrine.8) Regulates the endocrine activity of the cortex portion of the adrenal gland


Adrenal medulla


Regulates the endocrine activity of the cortex portion of the adrenal gland


Adrenal cortex


A hormone produced in the adrenal cortex that enables the body to resist long term stress.


ACTH


Which test is used when anemia is suspected


Differential


Platelets are fragments of large multinucleated cells known as ________________.


Megakarocytes


The major group of leukocytes that contain no observable cytoplasmic granules and are more abundant in lymphoid tissue and lymph.


Agranulocytes


An insoluable compound that forms a meshwork of strands that trap RBC's and is, therefore, considered the structural basis of clot formation.


Fibrin


Another name for the proteins in plasma known as agglutinins


Antigens


The ability of leukocytes to move in and out of blood vessels in order to reach sites of inflammation or tissue destruction


Diapedesis


Nucleated cells that are formed in the bone marrow whose numbers average from 4,000 to 11,000 per uL of blood.


leukocytes


Anucleocyte (without a nucleus) cells, when mature, whose numbers average 4.5 to 5.0 million per uL of blood


erythrocytes


What is the nonliving fluid matrix portion of blood?


Formed elements


What is the technical name for a blood clot?


Throbin


What type of tissue is blood?


Connctive


How many liters of blood are contained in the circulatory system of the average adult


5.5 L


hat is the least common blood type in whites, blacks, and Asians?


AB


What is the technical term for the process of blood clot formation?


Coagulation


Whole blood is composed of plasma and ________________.


Formed elements


The largest of the leukocytes.


Monocytes


What is the smallest of the leukocytes?


lymphocytes


You are given a capillary tube containing uncentrifuged blood and told to determine the patient’s hematocrit. The original column height before centrifuging is 50 mm. After spinning, the bottom layer of the capillary tube containing cells is 20 mm and the top layer containing plasma is 30 mm. What is the patient’s hematocrit value?


40


Also called reduced hemoglobin, this is the form of hemoglobin that results after oxygen diffuses into the blood.


deoxyhemoglobin


This type of leukocyte is present in high amounts in the blood when a patient has a parasitic infection.



eosinophil


James has a hemoglobin measurement of 16 g/100 ml blood. This is:


Within normal range


o visible cytoplasmic granules are present in:


Monocytes


P>Place the following in correct developmental sequence

1. reticulocyte
2. proerythroblast
3. normoblast
4. late erythroblast


    


2, 4, 3, 1


he slowest step in the clotting process is:


Formation of prothrombin activator


lack of intrinsic factor, leading to a deficiency of vitamin B12 and large pale cells called macrocytes, is characteristic of:


Pernicious anemia


hich sequence is correct for the following events? 1. fibrinogen ® fibrin
2. clot retraction
3. formation of thromboplastin
4. prothrombin ® thrombin



3, 4, 1, 2


red's blood was determined to be AB positive. What does this mean?


There are no antibodies to A, to B, or to Rh antigens in the plasma.



hich of the following is a precursor of a basophil?


Myeloblast


ickling of red blood cells can be produced in those with sickle-cell anemia by:


Travel at high altitude and vigorous exercise


hen can erythroblastosis fetalis not possibly happen in the child of an Rh negative mother?


If the father is Rh


Alternating surges of pressure in an artery that occur with each contraction and relaxation of the left ventricle.


Pulse


Often referred to as the pacemaker of the heart because it sets the rate of depolarization for the heart as a whole.


Sinoatrial Node


This wave indicates depolarization of the atria just before atrial contraction.


P Wave


A heat rate over 100 bpm.


Tachycardia


When a “blood pressure cuff” is placed around the arm and in- flated to a pressure higher than the systolic pressure, circula- tion to the forearm is occluded. As this pressure is released, characteristic sounds are heard, which indicate the resumption of blood to the forearm. What are these sounds called?


Sounds of Korotokoff


A double walled fibrous sac that encloses the heart.


Pericardium


The graphic recording of the electrical charges occurring during the cardiac cycle is called a/an ____________?


ECG


The apex of the heart is located at the ______________ and is in line with the middle region of the left clavicle.


5th Intercostal Space


The length of a normal cardiac cycle.


0.8 Sec.


One superficial pulse that may be readily palpated.


Radial Pulse


The left atrioventricular valve.


Bicuspid valve


These arteries ascend through the lateral neck and at the superior border of the larynx and divide into two branches.


Common Carotid Arteries


Supplies the duodenum and the stomach.


Common hepatic artery


Site where exchanges of food and gases are made.


Capillaries


Carries oxygen-poor blood to the lungs.


Pulmonary trunk


Longest vein in the body, superficial.


Great saphenous vein


Major artery of the thigh


Femoral Artery


Supplies the small intestine.


Superior mesenteric artery


Artery usually palpated to take the blood pressure.


Brachial Artery


Carries oxygen-rich blood from the lungs.


Anterior Vena Cava


Blood enters which of these vessels during ventricular systole?


Aorta and pulmonary arteries


The tricuspid valve is closed:


When the ventricle is in systole


The second heart sound is heard during which phase of the cardiac cycle?


Isovolumetric relaxation


Stenosis of the mitral valve may initially cause a pressure increase in the:


Pulmonary circulation


If we were able to artificially alter the membrane permeability of pacemaker cells so that sodium influx is more rapid:


Slow calcium channels in the pacemaker tissue would be cycling at a greater rate




Which of the following are involved directly in pulmonary circulation?


Right ventricle, pulmonary artery, and left atrium


Histologically, the _________ is squamous epithelium supported by a sparse connective tissue layer.


Tunica intima (interna)


A thrombus (blood clot) in the first branch of the arch of the aorta would affect the flow of blood to the:


Right side of the head and neck and right upper arm


Cerebral blood flow is regulated by:


Intrinsic autoregulatory mechanisms


A patient with essential hypertension might have pressures of 200/120 mm Hg. This hypertensive state could result in all of the following changes except:


Decreased size of the heart muscle


Excess tissue fluid.


Edema


All reticular lymphoid organs are composed of reticular connective tissue except?


Thymus


Large isolated clusters of lymphoid follicles, structurally similar to tonsils, that are located in the wall of the distal portion of small intestine.


Peyer’s patches


Lymph nodes, spleen and tonsils.


Lymphoid Organs


These types of cells differentiate in the thymus.


T Cells


Cells that recognize antigens and produce plasma cells.


B Cells


The lighter-staining center of a lymphoid follicles.


Germinal centers


Receives lymph drainage from the digestive organs.


Cisterna Chyli


Internal portion of a lymph gland where cells are arranged in a cordlike fashion.


Medulla


Lymph enters the subcapular sinus of the lymph node through the ________ .


Afferent lymphatic vessels


As lymph exits the hilum there are fewer of these types of vessels draining the node than feeding it. What is the name of the vessels draining the node?


Efferent lymphatic vessels


Small organs associated with lymphatic vessels are termed:


Lymph nodes


The distal portion of the small intestine contains clumps of lymph follicles called:


Peyer's patches


The thymus is most active during:


Childhood


The lymphatic capillaries are:


More permeable than blood capillaries


Lymph leaves a lymph node via:


Efferent lymphatic vessels


By secreting hormones, the thymus causes what cells to become immunocompetent?


Lymphocytes


When the lymphatics are blocked due to tumors, the result is:


Severe localized edema distal to the blockage


What is a bubo?


An infected lymph node


The lymph tissues found within the walls of the small intestine are called:


Peyer's patches


Particularly large clusters of lymph nodes occur in all of the following locations except the:


Lower extremities


Digestive tract-associated lymphatic tissue includes all of the following except:


Islets of Langerhans


Functions of the lymphatic system include:


Transport of excess tissue fluid to the blood vascular system



The tonsils located at the base of the tongue are the:


Lingual tonsils


Which of the following is not a normal component of lymph?


Red blood cells


A sentinel node is:


The first node to receive lymph from an area suspected to be cancerous


Select the correct statement about lymph transport.


Lymph transport depends on the movement of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles


Select the correct statement about lymphocytes.


B cells produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies in to the blood


Select the correct statement about lymphoid tissue.


Lymphoid tissue is predominately reticular connective tissue


A ring of lymphoid tissue that appears as a swelling of the mucosa in the oral cavity is called a(n):


Tonsil