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Last US history final
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cotton gin


machine invented by eli whitney in the 1793 that seperated cotton fibers from the seed faster and cheaper than by hand


democrats


one of the two major political parties in the united states which can trace its roots to the small-government ideals of the party under Presidents Thomas jefferson and andrew jackson; since president Franklin Roosevelt the party has sought to expandthe federal governments role in regulating big business and the economy


embargo act


federal law passed in 1807 at the behest of president Thomas Jefferson outlawing all trade between the united states and europe in order to pressure the french and british to recognize the neutrality of the united states and its rights to trade with either country; the embargo hurt the united states economically more than anything else and it was repealed in 1809


erie canal


manmade waterway completed in 1825 that linked lake erie to the hudson river and facilitated the exchange of goods


indian removal act


federal law passed in 1830 that authorized president Andrew Jackson to remove southeastern native americans including the cherokee


jays treaty


treaty between the united states and great britian negotiated by chief justice john jay in 1794 in which britian agreed to remove its soldiers from the ohio valley and pay damages for the american ships it had seized in exchange for americans promise to honor and pay all debts accured before the revolutionary war


kansas nebraska act


federal law passed in 1854 with the encouragement of stephen douglas that divided kansas and left the future of slavery in each to be decided by poplular sovereignty; the act effectively nullified the missouri comprimise of 1821 and created conditions that would lead to violent conflict between pro and anti slavery settlers in bleeding kansas


Marbury vs Madison


supreme court desision of 1803 in which chief justice john marshall declared the judiciary act of 1789 unconstitutional


missouri compromise


political compromise struck in 1820 between slave states and free states to maintain balance in the senate by admitting missouri as a slave state and maine as a free state; the comprimise also prohibited slavery in all the territories in the west north of the 36┬░30 parallel.


mormons


church of latter-day saints


republican party


\\\"early political party of the 1820s led by Henry Clay and John Quincy Adams that championed the american system


nullifacation crisis


political crisis of 1832 sparked by south carolinas repeal of the tariff; the crisis highlighted tensions between those supporting the supremacy of the federal government and those supporting the primacy of the states rights


war of 1812


\\\"war between united states and great britain between 1812 and 1814 over impressments


william lloyd garrison


\\\"radical abolitionist and


second great awakening


euphemism for the religious revivalism that spread throughout the united states in the 1820s 30s and 40s particulary in the south and west where thousands of people would gather at revival camps to listen to traveling methodist and baptist preahers.


trail of tears


\\\"forced removal of cherokee indians between 1835 and 1838 after the cherokee had lost their appeal both in and out of control to keep their land; the us army escorted 16


whiskey rebellion


uprising of farmers in western pennsylvania in 1794 who protested alexander hamilton\\\'s excise tax on whiskey; president george washington used federal soilderes to restore order and demonstate the new governments authority and stability.


john adams


federalist who served as second president of the united states from 1797 to 1801; adams passed the alien and sedition acts and fought a brief undeclared war with france


alien and sediton acts


laws passed by federalist in 1789 that enchanced government power in the intrest of national security; opponents countered that the laws restricted free speech and the rights of immigrants and the publics distaste for these laws helped democratic-republican Thomas Jefferson win the presidency in 1800


alamo


\\\"blattle fought in 1836 during texas war for independence from mexico in which a force roughly two hundred texans and americans


henry clay


prominent whig politician from kentucky who as a senator and speaker of the house of representatives advocated the american system in the early to mid nineteenth; clay also orchestrated both the missouri compromise in 1820 and the compromise of 1850 in an attempt to prevent the issue of slavery from splitting the union.


james polk


\\\"democratic president from 1854 to 1849


willlmot proviso


proposal made in 1846 to prohibit slavery in any lands won during the mexican war; the proviso failed to pass in the senated and renewed the debate the north and south over the future of slavery in the west.


free soil movement


political party formed in 1848 by northern democrats anti slavery whigs and the abolistionist liberty party; the party campaigned for the abolition of slavery and in many ways was there the forerunner of the republican party.


manifest destiny


\\\"belief that Americans were destined by god to expand the united states and settle across the entire north American continent; the belief help justify the acquisiton new territories in the far west


mexican american war


war fought between the united states and mexico from 1846 to 1848 after the united states annexed the disputed territory of texas the vast tracts of new lands acquired after the defeat of mexico prompted new debates in congress over the future of slavery in the west


whigs


American colonists in the 1770s who supported the revolutionary war;later a political party in the 1820s 30s and 40s  that supported internal improvements/high protective tariffs/ and the second bank of the united states.


lewis and clark


exploreres meriwether lewis and william clark who were sent by president thomas jefferson to explore and chart the louisiana purchase in 1804 the eventually reach the pacific ocean in 1806


louisiana territory


\\\"tract of land stretching from mississippi river to the missouri river in present day montana that was purchases by president thomas jefferson from france in 1803 for 20 million


Virginia plan


Proposal introduced by virginai delegates at the constitutional convention that called for the creation of a bicameral national legislature in which representation in both houses would be based on each states poplulation. Later combinded with New Jersey plan to make the great comprimise and create a bicameral national legislature.


black codes


\\\"laws concerning free black people throughout the 1830s. freed blacks could not carry firearms


yeoman farmer


british term for farmer to works his own land is often applied to independent farmers of the south who mostly live on family sized farms


american system


a program of national economic development that became identifies with henry clay


nat turner


a lay preacher


putting out system


home manufactured goods under direction of a merchant who put out the raw materials to them and paid them certain sum per finished piece.


lowell


a textile manufacturing city in massachusetts in the early to mid 19 century. first major manufacturing city in new england founded by francis cabot lowell.


bank war


the political stuggle between president andrew jackson and the supporters of the second bank of the united states.1832


horace mann


reformer in the 1830s and 1840s who served as the secretary of the massachusetts board of education sought to create publicly-funded schools throught the country.


New Jersey plan


proposal by delegates from new jersey at the constitutional convention to benefit smaller states by creating a unicameral national legislature in which every state had equal representation; The great compromise of 1787 combined this plan with the virginia plan to create a bicameral legislature in which representation in the senate would be equal for every state while representation in the house of representatives would be based on the population of each state with slaves counting only as three fifths of a person


Bill of Rights


First ten amendments written by james madison and aded to the constitutuion in 1789 at the behest of the anti-federalist to rpotect those state and individual rights not mentioned in the constitution on/ including the right to free speech/ religion/ press/ petition/ assembly/ bear arms/ trial by jury/ and due process


Federalist papers


Series of essays written by federalist john jay james madison and alexander hamilton in 1787 and 1788 to convince new yorkers to ratify the new federal constitution; they are collectively considered to be among the greatest american political writings