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Title: Standing Buddha
Period (or Kingdom): Koguryo
Date: 539
Medium and Design: gilt bronze
Context: Earliest known statue on the Korean peninsula.  Has 2 lions, which relate to the origin of the buddha who was a prince (lions symbolize his royal status).  Has a meditation gesture.




Title: Standing Bodhisattva
Period (or Kingdom): Koguryo
Date: 6th c.
Medium and Design: gilt bronze
Context: A bodhisattva has reached enlightenment but has decided not to go into nirvana & rather stay and help others reach enlightenment.  He wears a crown (and a lot more jewelry in general than buddhas) because they are considered royalty.



Title: Seated Buddha
Period (or Kingdom): Paekche
Date: 2nd half of 6th c.
Medium and Design: grey soap stone (steatite)
Context: From Kunsuri temple site, Puyo.  It looks very different from previous buddhas in its details.  Wears very simple garments that flow over the pedestal.  Has a very soft, warm appearance.  Has strong connections with Japan.  Wears a U-shaped rim garment.




Title: Standing Bodhisattva
Period (or Kingdom): Paekche
Date: 6th century
Medium and Design: Gilt Bronze
Context: From Kunsuri Temple site




Title: Sŏsan Triad
Period (or Kingdom): Paekche
Date: 600-650
Medium and Design: Granite
Context: Mt. Sŏsan, Ch’ungch’ŏng namdo




Title: Seated Maitreya
Period (or Kingdom): Three kingdoms period
Date: 7th C
Medium and Design: Gilt Bronze
Context: Compared to Japan Seated Maitreya




Title: Seated Maitreya
Period (or Kingdom): Three kingdoms period
Date: Early 7th C
Medium and Design: Gilt Bronze
Context:




Title: Roof tile with monster mask
Period (or Kingdom): Unified Silla
Date: 7th-8th c.
Medium and Design: green-glazed stoneware
Context: Intentionally glazed.  Would have been placed at the corners of the roof in order to protect the building from evil spirits.




Title: Floor tile
Period (or Kingdom): Unified Silla
Date: 7th-8th c.
Medium and Design: earthenware
Context: Very elaborate lotus flower design.




Title: Door handles
Period (or Kingdom): Unified Silla
Date: 8th-9th c.
Medium and Design: gilt bronze
Context: Made with monster masks to keep the building safe.




Title: Bowl with painted design
Period (or Kingdom):  Unified Silla
Date: 7th to 8th century
Medium and Design: Grey Stoneware
Context: Anapchi Pond Built in 674-679 on order of King Munmi. One of the most famous found in Anachi. It is difficult to date because it has to be done based on stuylistic comparisons. Must be done that way because the building of the site is the starting date not the end date. Stoneware and grey with white coat. Paint on it with designs and some characters which relate to divination. Probably used in very special ritual




Title: Candle Snuffers
Period (or Kingdom): Unified Silla
Date: 7th to 8th century
Medium and Design: Gilt Bronze
Context: Anapchi Pond Built in 674-679 on order of King Munmi. The shape of the candle and fine craftsmanship put into the decoration. Made of gilt bronze. Only one object that is similar and not is in the collection in a warehouse in Japan. The other one doesn’t have the delicate decorations. Has a wavy designs but is very practical because your fingers would fit that shape. Can be used for ordinary royal daily life but can be used in Buddhist ceremonies so do not know if it was secular or ordinary purposes. 8th century




Title: Buddha Triad
Period (or Kingdom): Unified Silla
Date: 7th to 8th C.
Medium and Design: Gilt Bronze
Context: Anapchi Pond Built in 674-679 on order of King Munmi. Buddha triad More 8th century according to the dial. This is a small flat relief that gives you an idea of space that other Buddhist statues have failed to as far. The curves of their bodies and where they are standing behind the petal stool makes the 3-D look real. The feet and legs and arms are cast in way are round and strong feeling of volume, The kind of style that is not typical of Silla period. Now related to east Asia. The lotus flower also seems to bloom and look as if it is unraveling.




Title: Brahma and Samantabhadra
Period (or Kingdom): Unified Silla
Date: middle 8th c.
Medium and Design: granite
Context: Sokkuram Grotto, near Konju.  Located on the left side.  These were both originally Hindu gods.  Samantabhadra is a bodhisattva and has crowns, jewelry, and shawls.  Shows a very sophisticated & detailed way of carving.  The gods have a halo that is more detailed.




Title: Majusri and Indra
Period (or Kingdom): Unified Silla
Date: middle 8th c.
Medium and Design: granite
Context: Sokkuram Grotto, near Konju. Located on the right side of the Sokkuram Grotto.  Majusri is a bodhisattva (which are the 2 inner figures)



Title: Eleven-Headad Avalokiteshvara.
Period (or Kingdom):  Unified Silla
Date: middle 8th century
Medium and Design: Granite
Context: Near Konju. Sokkuram Grotto. Avalokiteshvara (MEMORIZE) Most important disciples and he is related to Amitabah Buddha of the western paradise which is the most accessible.  Relatively rare in Korea . 3 pity, 3 anger, 3 joy. Face of A counts as 11. Crown jewelry, standing on lotus flower and holding a bottle. The Buddha and a crown. Can always recognize him by a Buddhist image on crown. The bottle is suppose to hold healing water and that is why he is an image of devotion. Because people come to pray for their health. Full round lips and full slight eyes and full eyebrows.



Title: Main Buddha
Period (or Kingdom): Unified Silla
Date: middle 8th eentury
Medium and Design: Granite
Context: Near Konju, Sokkruram Grotto. Main model for Buddhist sculptures. One of the most important. It was the standard for other sculptures. Relates to other sculptures like in Tang China. His appearance is he is kind of chubby, round face, and it was a beauty ideal of the time. Full lips and high eye brows. The way the drapery is shown, this one has one shoulder bare and the other is covered. The earth touching gesture related to historical Buddha shakamuni who was during tried by evil spirits and ghosts kind of like jesus stories. He resisted these trials and called upon the earth spirit that he had resisted the trials. The earth touching gesture. Cannot easily identify the Buddha by gestures. Some say this is the amuta Buddha or shakamuni. Professor thinks it is shakamuni because of the size of the Buddha related to the shakamuni in India but no inscription.



Title: Iron Vairocana from Porimsa (South Cholla Province)
Period (or Kingdom): Unified Silla
Date: 858
Medium and Design: iron covered with lacquer and painted with gold and colors
Context: Has very similar proportions to the Sokkuram buddha though somewhat slimmer.  His fist is in the wisdom gesture which is indicative of the Vairocana buddha.  He is the main buddha of esoteric Buddhism and symbolizes a unity of concepts (ex. human life and nirvana).




Title: Baishajyaguru
Period (or Kingdom): Unified Silla
Date: 8th century
Medium and Design: Gilt Bronze
Context:



Title: Amitabha Triad (with Avalokiteshvara and Mahasthamaprapta)
Period (or Kingdom): Koryo
Date: late 13th c.
Medium and Design: color and gold on silk
Context: The painting is very elegant, dark, and detailed.  Avalokiteshvara is on the right, identifiable by the image of Amitabha Buddha in his crown - Amitabha is seated in a lotus posture.  The garments are depicted very detailed with a lot of gold.  There are some cranes and clouds on the undergarments and gold medals on the upper garments.  There are lots of layers on the garments, even a thin, transparent garment on top of the bodhisattvas.  The buddha is seated on a very elaborate structure.  The piece was probably meant to be hung on an altar & approached from the front.



Title: Descending Amitabha with Avalokiteshvara and Ksitigarbha
Period (or Kingdom): Koryo
Date: 14th c.
Medium and Design: color and gold on silk
Context: The figure on the bottom left is praying to the buddha and they are all shown standing on lotus flowers.  Ksitigarbha is ruler of the underworld & in charge of the dead (he carries the wish-granting jewel).  The piece might have been hung in front of the deathbed of a person who was about to die in order to comfort that person and their family (Amitabha promised rebirth in the western paradise).  There is enormous detail shown in the scarves, jewelry, and garments.  The little red patches in the lower right usually had an inscription of the donor/temple that they belonged to (it was sometimes left blank and sometimes lost).



Title: Ksitigarbha and the Ten Kings of Hell
Period (or Kingdom): Koryo
Date: 13th-14th c.
Medium and Design: color and gold on silk
Context: Ksitigarbha is usually shown dressed like a monk (and not clad like other bodhisattvas).  He also holds a wish-granting jewel.  The painting shows Ksitigarbha as ruler of the underworld.  Ideas about the Chinese state administration were incorporated - some of the figures are dressed like Chinese officials.  Confucian principles were also included - Bodhisattva helps with rebirth on another level.  It is very lively & dynamic - everyone has their own expressions and is looking in different places.




Title: Sŏ Kubang: Water-moon Avalokiteshvara
Period (or Kingdom): Koryŏ
Date: 1323
Medium and Design: color and gold on silk
Context: Story about a boy named suddana searching for the ultimate. Visited 53 things and one of the was Avalokit. Ava is described as described as seated on a mountain on a diamond seat amid fragment grass on a pool. In a crystal bowl suppose to hold healing medicine, with a branch. Has an inscription and tells us the name and date of painter. Most painting have been conversed in Japan because they were taken from Korea from invasions like Japanese pirates also. There were also diplomatic relations like Japanese monks asking for painting and sukras that exchanged these materials.



Title: Illuminated Manuscript of the Lotus Sutra, folding book
Period (or Kingdom): Koryŏ
Date: about 1340
Medium and Design: gold and silver on indigo died mulberry paper
Context: folding book. Reflect the attention to detail and splendor with the fold. The Sutra is folded into a book. Gold has been used to write the title. (chapter 2 of the title) lotus characters. The patrons gained merit and great care was put into this. The Buddha is seated high above. One of the stories is about a burning house and monsters and snakes in the house and three children that are in great danger. A parable about a wealthy man whose house got burned his children in the house. Dad doesn’t want to scare so he lures them out of the house with cars with his favorite animals. Meant to say that the Buddha takes great care of living beings and shows them the way out of danger and entering nirvana. The way these charges transforms is the way the vehicle transforms into nirvana. The poor man gets rich and his son goes away come back doesn’t recognize. Starts working from the bottom. Lesson: get out of this world of illusions and get to a better way the Buddhist way. Boy works his way up and eventually gets to manage the house and his father tells him and names him his heir. Sutras done for royalty and gives to Chinese emperor



Title: Illuminated Manuscript of the Avatamsaka Sutra (Hwaŏmgyŏng, “Flower Garland Sutra”)
Period (or Kingdom): Koryŏ
Date: d. 1337
Medium and Design: gold and silver on indigo died mulberry paper
Context: handscroll. Covered with gold paint over and over. 3 stories with 3 main figures. Similar frame and thunder bolts and related to the boy sudana (who met with avaloteshtra) three other saints not labeled




Title: Jar made for the ancestral shrine of King T’aejo
Period (or Kingdom): Koryo
Date: 993
Medium and Design: stoneware with transparent glaze
Context: Ancestral shrine of King T’aejo.  Celadon is a literary term that does not refer to the technique or style of the piece but rather to the blue-green color.  Celadon is also found in China and other places.  The green color is a matter of the reduction process.  This jar is the first known dated celadon in Korea.  The inscription on the bottom of the jar tells us the date, the name of the potter, and about the jar.




Title: Vase excavated from the tomb of King Injong (died 1146)
Period (or Kingdom): Koryo
Date: King Injong died 1146
Medium and Design: stoneware with celadon glaze
Context: From the tomb of King Injong.  Has a rather thin glaze.  It is very simple and elegant in shape.  It is shaped like a melon with a lobed body and pleated foot.  There are 3 simple lines at the neck and the mouth looks like a melon flower.




Title: Kundika Bottle
Period (or Kingdom): Koryo
Date: 12th-13th c.
Medium and Design: bronze with silver inlay
Context: Excavated at Kaesong.  Kundika bottles were used as water sprinklers during ceremonies.  They show a crossing over of medium.




Title: Water dropper in the shape of duck
Period (or Kingdom): Koryo
Date: 12th c.
Medium and Design: sculpted stoneware with celadon glaze
Context:




Title: Incense Container
Period (or Kingdom): Koryo
Date: 10th-12th c.
Medium and Design: Lacquer with mother-pearl and tortoiseshell inlay
Context:




Title: Maebyŏng with couple in garden
Period (or Kingdom): Koryŏ
Date: 13th-14th C.
Medium and Design: Inlaid stoneware with celadon glaze
Context: Seoul



Title: Wine ewer from the tomb of a Koryo official
Period (or Kingdom): Koryŏ
Date: Before 1258
Medium and Design: Inlaid stoneware with celadon glaze copper-red color
Context:




Title: Vase with willow tree
Period (or Kingdom): Koryŏ
Date: 12th c.
Medium and Design: Stoneware with iron-brown decoration under transparent glaze.
Context:



Title: Maebyong with gingseng leaves
Period (or Kingdom): Koryŏ
Date: Mid-12th c.
Medium and Design: Stoneware with brown slip and white inlay under transparent glaze
Context:




Title: Jar with peony design
Period (or Kingdom): Koryŏ
Date: 13th c.
Medium and Design: Stoneware with partial brown glaze and inlaid decoration
Context:



Title: An Kyon: “Dream Journey to the Peach Blossom Land”
Period (or Kingdom): Early Choson
Date: 1447
Medium and Design: ink and light color on silk
Context: The Early Choson period was dominated by ideals of antiquity - we see a reflection of what was already there during the Late Koryo period and the style reflects styles seen in China during the older dynasties.  An Kyon was the court painter for Prince Anpyong.  The title of the painting refers to a poem written in early Chinese history (about a fisherman who travels through a hard journey and finds the beach blossom land - a land of peace where people have secluded themselves; after going back and telling others, the land was never found again).  The reading of the painting starts from the left and follows the story forcing the viewer to also climb rocks, transgress gorges, etc.  The painting shows Anpyong’s wish to refuge from the society which he has been living in - he was disliked by many in the court.  The painting has a political meaning while also referring to Anpyong’s dream.




Title: Anonymous: “Evening Bell from a Distant Temple” and “Autumn Moon over Lake Dongting”
Period (or Kingdom): Early Choson
Date: 15th c.
Medium and Design: pair of hanging scrolls, ink on silk
Context: Shows the favored style of the 15th c. (which was based on models from earlier dynasties).  Style had a distinct way of showing tall, high, majestic mountains (they were very fantastical shapes).  The outlines are very thick then become very thin - they change from light to dark and also in the thickness of the strokes.



Title: Sin Saimdang: “Plants and Insects”
Period (or Kingdom): Middle Choson
Date:
Medium and Design: ten-fold screen, ink and colors on paper
Context: Sin Saimdang is the most famous Korean woman painter.  She was successful because she was promoted from both sides of history (both the court & Confucianism), otherwise she would not have been able to succeed as a woman in Korea.  Unlike other women of the time, she was also well-educated.  Her paintings are done in great detail and very meticulously.  Consists of many organic, soft lines.




Title: Kim Myongguk: “Travel through Deep Mountains”
Period (or Kingdom): Middle Choson
Date:
Medium and Design: hanging scroll, ink one hemp
Context: Find in Korea Confucian minded people in Korea were fond of landscape paintings A narration going on. Some one who visited a friend from a hut and he is looking back and waving good bye. It is a travel scene in winter. The diagonal lines are characteristic. Sketchy brush strokes reminiscent of Kim ygshi rock. But his brush strokes are bolder. He used the brush swiftly and harshly there are split brush outlines. The interesting side of inkpainting because you can see the process frozen in the work. How do we see it is a winter scene? Because you can see some white on the branches and did not use white as on the work instead left and the sky is painting to contrast the white on the snow.




Title: Kim Myongguk: “Bodhidharma,”
Period (or Kingdom): Middle Choson
Date:
Medium and Design: hanging scroll, ink on paper.
Context: Bond brush strokes (flying white brush stroke because the brush hair split) The white face with big nose. The ink style tells a lot about the character of the painter. Bodhidarma is the founder of Zon Buddhism. Lived in the 5th and 6th century. Indian origin and is known to have magical powers. He was suppose to cross a river with a reed gliding over the Yanki river. He meditated for 9 years in front of a rock with out sleep, eating and his shadow was suppose to have stayed there.




Title: Punch’ong jar with inlaid design
Period (or Kingdom): Choson
Date: early 15th c.
Medium and Design: stoneware
Context: Punch’ong refers to the white slip on the blue/gray background.  There is a lotus-formed band at the bottom and a dragon design in the middle.  The bands are reminiscent of Koryo decoration.  The inlay technique and materials are the same as that of the Koryo period.




Title: Punch’ong bottle with incised fish design
Period (or Kingdom): Choson
Date: 16th c.
Medium and Design: stoneware
Context: Very freely incised design.  The design is incised into the slip and not into the body of the ceramic so that it looks almost like a painting.  The bottle itself is very flat (it is a new type of bottle not seen in the Koryo period).




Title: Punch’ong bowl with stamped design
Period (or Kingdom): Choson
Date: mid 15th c.
Medium and Design: stoneware
Context:



Title: Punch’ong bottle with painted slip
Period (or Kingdom): Choson
Date: 16th c.
Medium and Design: Punch’ong bottle with painted slip
Context: Very much admired by Japanese because of the Japanese Tea masters. Are in Japanese collectors. Could see the bowl aging, The individuality and natural flare is what they wanted and found precious. Individual bowls have names in Japan. They write poetry about it.



Title: Wine cup
Period (or Kingdom): Choson
Date: 15th c.
Medium and Design: Porcelain
Context: Confucian ancestral ritual emphasized in the 15ht century. Establoshed in households started from royal family and high officials through the centuries it became normal. Changed to white ware from metal. Not used for ordinary drinking. Used for wine offering during ancestral ritual. Connection with porcelain imitiation the earlier metal ware. Not a bright blue color.



Title: Jar with bamboo and plum blossoms
Period (or Kingdom): Choson
Date: mid 15th century
Medium and Design: Porcelain with cobalt-blue decorations
Context: Decorated all over and must have been really precious to the court. Reminds us of the Chinese ceramics but then has done with court painters. Decorate and go to the kilns of these kings in order to decorate the porcelain at the court. That is why it is so high quality. These two plants belong to the four gentlemen plants. Plum blossom was the first tree blossoming in the early spring, overcoming the winter, Confucian scholars overcoming hardship. Bamboo, can bend and twist in the wind but does break represent Confucian scholars not being corrupt by the government. Representative of the four seasons. Symbolims of two of the three friends of Winter.




Title: Jar with bamboo and plum blossom design
Period (or Kingdom): Choson
Date: 16th c.
Medium and Design: Porcelain with under-glaze iron-brown decoration.
Context: Decorated all over and must have been really precious to the court. Reminds us of the Chinese ceramics but then has done with court painters. Decorate and go to the kilns of these kings in order to decorate the porcelain at the court. That is why it is so high quality. These two plants belong to the four gentlemen plants. Plum blossom was the first tree blossoming in the early spring, overcoming the winter, Confucian scholars overcoming hardship. Bamboo, can bend and twist in the wind but does break represent Confucian scholars not being corrupt by the government. Representative of the four seasons. Symbolims of two of the three friends of Winter.