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CompTIA A+ Hardware
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CPUs: What is RISC


Reduced
Instruction
Set
Chips

Used in data collection, sensors, routers, and graphics processors.


CPUS: What is CISC?


Complex
Instruction
Set
Chips

Used in General Purpose PCs


The actual speed of the CPU is governed by a _______ setting called the clock rate.


BIOS


Multiple core allow the PC to simultaneously process multiple ______.


tasks or "Threads"


Multicore CPUs share a common ____ _____ _____. Which can cause traffic bottlenecks as competing cores communicate on the main system bus.


Front Side Bus.


Level one cache is located on ___________.


the CPU


Level two cache is located on _______.


the motherboard


level three cache is located on _________.


removable chips on the motherboard


ZIF stands for ______.


Zero Insertion Force.

a physical interface that lets you set the CPU into the array, and then use actuate a lever to make actual contact.


PGA stands for


Pin Grid Array


LGA stands for ______.


Line Grid Array


What are the two types of RAM?


Dynamic and Static

Dynamic - loses info in the absence of power.

Static - retains info like a hard drive.


SDRAM sands for _______.


Synchronous Dynamic RAM.

Data transfer is timed to the system clock.

DDR replaced 168 SDRAM


How many pins is a DDR DIMM?


184


How many pins is a DDR2 DIMM?


240


How many pins is a DDR3 DIMM?


240


How many pins is a SODIMM DDR DIMM?


144


How many pins is a SODIMM DDR2 DIMM?


200


How many pins is a MICRODIMM DIMM?


144


What does SODIMM stand for?


Small Outline DIMM


What does RIMM stand for?


RAMBUS Inline Memory Module

Comes in 184 and 232-pin slot


What does SIMM stand for?


Single Inline Memory Module

has 30 or 72 contacts on only one side.


What is VRAM used for?


video ram for the use of the Graphic Processing Unit (GPU).

Not related to Virtual RAM.


What is Virtual RAM?


Space on the HD that the RAM uses as an overflow area and as a backup copy of the contents in case of power failure.


Parity is a method of _____ ___ ______. It is used when the __________ of the data is more important than the _______ at which it is written or read. When the data is read or received, the bytes should still be ______. If not, the data is corrupt.


verifying data integrity.




Reliability and Speed





even


Parity is used in some _______ ________, ____ ____, and _____.


Network communications, hard drives, and RAM.


What does ECC stand for?


Error Correction Code.


What does ECC do?


detects and fixes corrupt data in RAM.


Both _____ and _______ decrease efficiency, but increase reliability in RAM.


Parity and ECC


The BIOS is stored on the _______ chip that is on the motherboard.


CMOS


BIOS allows you to do 4 things. what are they?


order Boot sequence
Integrated devices
drive cOntrollers
power Supply settings


What are the 6 form factors of motherboards.


ATX, BTX, Micro ATX, ITX, NLX, and LPX


What are the 5 Expansion Slot types


PCIe, PCI, AGP, ESIA, and ISA


What are Daughter Boards or Riser Boards?


they plug into the motherboard to allow further expansion.


What are the 4 main types of storage?


1. Magnetic Disk
2. Tape
3. Laser
4. Solid State Flash


Hard Drives mount at 3.5 or 2.5, Optical Drives mount at _____.


5.25


What do the type types of Hard Drive acronyms stand for? DSD and SSD


DSD - Dynamic State Drives
SSD - Solid State Drives



DSD or Dynamic State Drives are organized into Tracks or _____, and sectors or _____.


Rings or Radial Lines


What is DVD-RAM? and how is it used?


its used as "Endlessly" rewritable and used primarily as surveillance camera footage.


SCSI code is set by a 4 things, what are they.


1. jumper
2. dip switch
3. push button switch
4. and configured with a separae SCSI BIOS


RAID stands for _________.


Redundant Array of Independant (Inexpensive) Disks.


RAID 5 has at least ___ hard drives.


3


RAID 1+0 and 0+1 require ____ disks which are two disks that are striped and then mirrored or vise vera.


4


Number of Pins for Drives:
1. PATA, ATA, IDE, or EIDE


40 or 80


Number of Pins for Drives:
2. SCSI


50, 68, or 80


Number of Pins for Drives:
3. SATA


7 or 15 (powered)


Number of Pins for Drives:
4. FDD


34


Before sending a power supply to the recycling facility...


discharge the capacitors by touching and connecting the phase with the ground plug and then the neutral to the ground plug with an insulated screwdriver or pliers.


What is a Blackout?


Power failure


What is a Brownout?


Too little voltage


What is a Sag


Very brief time (milliseconds) of too little voltage


What is a Surge


Too much Voltage


What is a Spike


Very Brief time (milliseconds) of too much voltage


What does a Surge protector do?


Protects from too much voltage


What is a Line Conditioner


Cleans and smoothes the AC power signal


What is a SPS or Standby Power Supply


Backup power supply (usually a battery)


What is a Uninterruptible Power Supply?


A Battery backup that is recharged by the wall outlet.


4:3 monitor resolution is
1. vga
2. svga
3. XGA
4. XGA+
5. SXGA
6. SXGA+
7. UXGA
8. QXGA



1. vga = 640 x 480
2. svga = 800 x 600
3. XGA = 1024 x 768
4. XGA+ = 1152 x 864
5. SXGA = 1280 x 1024
6. SXGA+ = 1400 x 1050
7. UXGA = 1600 x 1200
8. QXGA = 2048 x 1536



What is Interlacing?


Interlacing draws the odd numbered rows of each frame, and then one-sixtieth of a second later, fills the space with the even numbered rows.


What does LCD stand for?


Liquid Crystal Display


How are LCDs illuminated?


1. a small florescent tube
2. a panel of LEDs
3. or if a projector, a bright bulb


What are Passive matrix LCD monitors?


monitors with chips that control the vertical and horizontal sets of wires.


what is a lumen?


a measure of brightness