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Computer Networking
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The TCP/IP administration utility for use with Windows operating systems.

A. ipconfig utility
B. ifconfig utility
C. netstat utility
D. nbstat utility


ipconfig utility


The TCP/IP configuration and management utility used on UNIX and Linux systems.

A. ipconfig utility
B. ifconfig utility
C. netstat utility
D. nbstat utility


ifconfig utility


Displays TCP/IP statistics and details about TCP/IP components and connections on a host.

A. ipconfig utility
B. ifconfig utility
C. netstat utility
D. nbstat utility


netstat utility


Used if an administrator already know a host's name and wants to learn its IP address.

A. nbstat utility
B. host utility
C. dig utility
D. route utility


host utility


Useful only on networks that run Windows-based operating systems and NetBIOS.

A. Netstat utility
B. nbstat utility
C. Host utility
D. Dig utility


nbstat utility


Allows an administrator to query a DNS database and find the host name associated with a specific IP address or vice versa.

A. nbstat utility
B. host utility
C. dig utility
D. route utility



dig utility


Allows an administrator to query the DNS database from any computer on the network and find the host name of a device by specifying its IP address, or vice versa.

A. nslookup utility
B. host utility
C. dig utility
D. route utility


nslookup utility


Allows you to view a host's routing table.

A. host utility
B. dig utility
C. traceroute utility
D. route utility


route utility


Uses ICMP ECHO requests to trace the path from one networked node to another, identifying all intermediate hops between the two nodes.

A. host utility
B. dig utility
C. traceroute utility
D. route utility



traceroute utility


Using a virtualization program, you can create dozens of different VMs.


True


A VM must use the same operating system, type of CPU, storage device, and NIC as the physical computer it resides on.


False


The software required to establish VPNs is usually expensive.


False


PPTP and L2TP are the only protocols that can be used to carry VPN traffic.


False


Most cloud service providers use virtualization software to supply multiple platforms to multiple users.


True


The physical computer on a virtual machine is known as a ____.

A. Guest
B. Client
C. Host
D. Server


Host


Each VM is known as a _____.

A. Guest
B. Host
C. Client
D. Node


Guest


_____ is the most widely implemented virtualization software today.

A. Hyper-V
B. Citrix
C. VirtualBox
D. VMware


VMware


To connect to a network, a virtual machine requires a _____.

A. Virtual switch
B. Virtual adapter
C. physical switch
D. virtual MAC address


Virtual adapter


Upon creation, each vNIC is automatically assigned a _____.

A. MAC address
B. switch address
C. block address
D. reference address


MAC address


_____ connect vNICs with a network, whether virtual or physical.

A. Virtual Routers
B. Virtual crossovers
C. Virtual duplexers
D. Virtual bridges


Virtual bridges


In the NAT networking mode, a vNIC relies on the _____ to act as a NAT device.

A. guest machine
B. reference machine
C. host machine
D. management machine


host machine


_____ mode is appropriate for test networks or if your simply need to install a different operating system on your workstation to use a program that is incompatible with your host's operating system.

A. Host-only
B. NAT
C. Bridged
D. Blocked


Host-only


_____ refers to dialing directly into a private network's or ISP's remote access server to log on to a network.


Dial-up networking


When a server compares a user's credentials with those in its database, the process is known as _____.


Authentication


In the case of dial-up networking, the term _____ refers to a modem.

A. serial connection
B. virtual connection
C. physical connection
D. POTS connection


serial connection


A _____ uses very little hard disk space or processing power from the workstation on which it is installed.

A. thick client
B. fat client
C. thin client
D. virtual client


thin client


_____ is the remote virtual computing software that comes with Windows client and server operating systems.


Remote Desktop


_____ is an open source system designed to allow one workstation to remotely manipulate and receive screen updates from another workstation.

A. Remote Desktop
B. VNC
C. Citrix
D. XEN


VNC


_____ are wide area networks that are logically defined over public transmission systems.

A. VPNs
B. Leased lines
C. Private lines
D. Dial-up lines


VPNs


VPNs can be classified based on the kinds of _____ they connect.

A. hardware
B. software
C. endpoints
D. circuits


endpoints


In a _____ VPN, tunnels connect multiple sites on a WAN.

A. site-to-site
B. site-to-client
C. client-to-client
D. link-to-line


site-to-site


A VPN tunneling protocol operates at the _____ layer.


Data Link


On network diagrams, the Internet is frequently depicted as a _____.


Cloud


In _____, each datagram can follow one of many paths to reach its destination.

A. Circuit switching
B. Line switching
C. Packet switching
D. Data switching


packet switching


_____ desktops are desktop operating environments hosted virtually, on a different physical computer from the one with which the user interacts.


Virtual


Human errors, ignorance, and omissions cause more than half of all security breaches sustained by networks.


True


Network security is more often compromised "from the inside" than from external sources.


True


A security policy should state exactly which hardware, software, architecture, or protocols will be used to ensure security.


False


Encryption is the last means of defense against data theft.


True


By default, the 802.11 standard offers substantial security.


False


_____ is a social engineering practice in which a person attempts to glean access or authentication information by posing as someone who needs that information.

A. Cracking
B. Hacking
C. War driving
D. Phishing


Phishing


In a _____ attack, a person redirects or captures secure transmissions as they occur.

A. denial-of-service
B. man-in-the-middle
C. war driving
D. phishing


man-in-the-middle


_____ software searches a node for open ports.

A. phishing
B. Sniffing
C. Authentication
D. Port scanner


Port Scanner


A router that is not configured to drop packets that match certain or suspicious characteristics is an example of a risk associated with _____.

A. People
B. Transmission and hardware
C. Protocols and software
D. Internet access


transmission and hardware


A NOS that contains a "back door" is an example of a risk associated with _____.

A. People
B. Transmission and hardware
C. Protocols and software
D. Internet access




protocols and software


A _____ attack occurs when an Internet chat user sends commands to a victim's machine that causes the screen to fill with garbage characters and requires the victim to terminate their chat sessions.

A. flashing
B. denial-of-service
C. war driving
D. phishing


flashing


A _____ attack occurs when a system becoms unable to function because it has been inundated with requests for services and can't respond to any of them.

A. flashing
B. denial-of-service
C. war driving
D. phishing


denial-of-service


A _____ main function is to examine packets and determine where to direct them based on their Network layer addressing information.

A. switch's
B. gateway's
C. router's
D. proxy server's


router's


A _____ firewall is a router (or computer installed with software that enables it to act as a router) that examines the header of every packet of data it receives to determine whether that type of packet is authorized to continue to its destination.

A. packet-filtering
B. gateway
C. proxy
D. selective


packet-filtering


A _____ attack occurs when a hacker uses programs that try a combination of a user ID and every word in a dictionary to gain access to the network.

A. flashing
B. denial-of-service
C. dictionary
D. brute force


dictionary


A _____ attack occurs when a hacker tries numerous possible character compinations to find the key that will decrypt encrypted data.

A. Flashing
B. Denial-of-service
C. Dictionary
D. Brute force


brute force


The combination of a public key and a private key is knows as a _____.


key pair


A(n) _____ is a password-protected and encrypted file that holds an individual's identification information, including a public key.


digital certificate


The use of certificate authorities to associate public keys with certain users is known as _____.
A. PGP
B. PKI
C. IPSec
D. SSL
 


PKI


_____ is a public key encryption system that can verify the authenticity of an e-mail sender and encrypt e-mail data in transmission.

A. PGP
B. SSH
C. IPSec
D. SSL


PGP


_____ is a method of encrypting TCP/IP transmissions above the Network layer.

A. PGP
B. IPSec
C. PAP
D. SSL


SSL


In _____, a hacker forges name server records to falsify his host's identity.

A. IP spoofing
B. DNS spoofing
C. ID spoofing
D. DHCP spoofing


DNS spoofing


A VPN _____ authenticates VPN clients and establishes tunnels for VPN connections.

A. router
B. service
C. concentrator
D. certificate authority


concentrator


_____ protocols are the rules that computers follow to accomplish authentication.


Authentication


RADIUS and TACACS belong to a category of protocols knows as AAA (_____).


authentication, authorization, and accounting


In _____, both computers verify the credentials of the other.

A. mutual authorization
B. mutual access
C. mutual authentication
D. mutual verification


mutual authentication


Software that can react to suspicious activity.

A. IPS
B. IDS
C. HIDS
D. stateful


IPS


Software that can only detect and log suspicious activity.

A. IPS
B. IDS
C. HIDS
D. stateful


IDS


A firewall that can block designated types of traffic based on application data contained within packets.

A. IPS
B. IDS
C. HIDS
D. content filtering


content filtering


A firewall that protects only the computer on which it is installed.

A. IPS
B. IDS
C. HIDS
D. stateful


HIDS


A firewall that can view a data stream.

A. IPS
B. IDS
C. HIDS
D. stateful


Stateful


The host that runs the proxy service.

A. proxy server
B. proxy service
C. public key encryption
D. private key encryption


proxy server


The software application on a network host that acts as an intermediary between the external and internal networks, screening all incoming and outgoing traffic.

A. proxy server
B. proxy service
C. public key encryption
D. private key encryption


Proxy service


Data is encrypted using two keys.

A. proxy server
B. proxy service
C. public key encryption
D. private key encryption


public key encryption


Data is encrypted using a single key.

A. proxy server
B. proxy service
C. public key encryption
D. private key encryption


private key encryption


Tone generators and tone locators are used to determine characteristics about a cable.


False


On a network using TCP/IP, some nodes may use multiple IP addresses.


True


In CIDR, conventional network class distinctions do not exist.


True


The MIME standard replaces SMTP.


False


POP3's design makes it best suited to users who retrieve their mail from the same workstation all the time.


True


IMAP4 servers require less storage space and usually more processing resources than POP servers do.


False


A class _____ network class is reserves for special purposes.


D


In _____ addressing, the network information portion of an IPv4 address is limited to the first 8 bits in a Class A address.


classful


In classful addressing, the Class B IPv4 address network ID is located in the _____.


first 16 bits


In classful addressing, Class C IPv4 address host information is located in the _____.


last 8 bits


Within a classful addressing subnet mask, the _____ bits indicate that corresponding bits in an IPv4 address contain network information.


1 (one)


Within a classful addressing, _____ is the subnet mask for a Class C address.


255.255.255.0


The result from ANDing 11001111 with 10010001 is _____.


10000001


When using classful IPv4 addressing, a network ID always ends with an octet of _____.


0 (zero)


Because the octets equal to 0 and 255 are _____, only the numbers 1 through 254 can be used for host information in an IPv4 address.


reserved


CIDR notation takes the form of a network ID followed by a(n)_____, followed by the number of bits that are used for the extended network prefix.


forward slash (/)


The _____ gateway is the gateway that first interprets its outbound requests to other subnets, and then interprets its inbound requests from other subnets.


default


The gateways that make up the Internet backbone are called _____ gateways.


core


The most popular mail server programs are Sendmail and _____.


Microsoft Exchange Server


An example of a popular client email software is _____.


Microsoft Outlook


SMTP operates from port _____.


25


The standard message format specified by SMTP allows for lines that contain no more than _____ ASCII characters.


1000


POP3 (Post Office Protocol, version 3) relies on TCP and operates over port _____.


110


IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) is a mail retrieval protocol that was developed as a more sophisticated alternative to _____.


POP3


An administrator can discover the host name assigned to a client by using the _____ utility.


hostname


A program similar to mtr, _____, is available as a command-line utility in Windows operating systems.


pathping


The _____ utility allows you to view a host's routing table.


route


In a star topology, a single connection failure will halt all traffic between all sites.


False


Dial-up ISDN does not convert a computer's digital signals to analog before transmitting them over the PSTN.


True


ATM is a WAN technology that functions in the Data Link layer.


True


SONET specifies framing and multiplexing techniques at the Physical layer.


True


Wireless signals experience attenuation.


True


Spread spectrum is a popular way of making wireless transmissions more secure.


True


Wireless networks are laid out using the same topologies as wire networks.


False


An ad hoc arrangement would work well for a WLAN with many users.


False


WiMAX is defined by the IEEE 802.11 standard.


False


WANs typically send data over _____ available communications networks.


publicly


The individual geographic locations connected by a WAN are known as _____.


WAN sites


Because WAN connections require routers or other Layer 3 devices to connect locations, their links are not capable of carrying _____ protocols.


Nonroutable


On most modern WANs, a ring topology relies on _____ rings to carry data.


redundant


_____ WANs are the most fault-tolerant type of WAN because they provide multiple routes for data to follow between any two points.


Mesh


The _____ encompasses the entire telephone system, from the wires that enter homes and businesses to the network centers that connect different regions of a country.


PSTN


A(n) _____ is the place where a telephone company terminates lines and switches calls between different locations.


CO


A _____ connection is one in which a user connects her computer, via a modem, to a distant network and stays connected for a finite period of time.


dial-up


The portion of the PSTN that connects any residence or business to the nearest CO is knows as the _____.


Local loop


_____ means that a telephone company connects residential users to its network with fiber-optic cable.


FITH


_____ is an updated, digital version of X.25 that also relies on packet switching.


Frame relay


In a process called _____, two 64-Kbps ISDN B channels can be combined to achieve an effective throughput of 128 Kbps.


Bonding


ISDN PRI uses _____ B channels and one 64-Kbps D channel.


23


A _____ aggregates multiple DSL subscriber lines and connects them to the carrier's CO.


DSLAM


Broadband cable requires many subscribers to share the same local line, thus raising concerns about _____ and actual (versus theoretical) throughput.


Security


What sets ATM apart from Ethernet is its _____ size.


Fixed packet


SONET's extraordinary _____ results from its use of a double-ring topology over fiber-optic cable.


fault tolerance


In wireless communication, to exchange information, two antennas must be tuned to the same _____.


Frequency


A directional antenna issues wireless signals along a(n) _____ direction.


single


In _____, a wireless signal splits into secondary waves when it encounters an obstruction.


diffraction


_____ is a significant problem for wireless communications because the atmosphere is saturated with electromagnetic waves.


Interference


In the case of connecting two WLANs, access poins could be as far as _____ feet apart.


1000


The average geographic range for an 802.11a antenna is _____ meters.


20


_____ is the least popular WLAN standard.


802.11a


An 802.11g antenna has a geographic range of _____ meters.


100


_____ may use either the 2.4-GHz or 5-GHz frequency range.


802.11n


If intermittent and difficult-to-diagnose wireless communication errors occur, _____ might be the culprit.


interference


Most satellites circle the Earth _____ miles about the equator in a geosynchronous orbit.


22,300


_____ satellites are the type used by the most popluar satellite data service providers.


Geosynchronous earth orbiting


Clients are able to exchange signals with satellites as long as they have a _____ path.


line-of-sight


To establish a satellite Internet connection, each subscriber must have a _____.


dish antenna


The simplest form of a network is a client/server network.


False


Clients on a client/server network share their resources directly with each other.


False


Standards assist in network design.


True


The Application layer includes software application.


False


Not all Transport layer protocols are concerned with reliability.


True


Ethernet is an example of a baseband system found on many LANs.


True


Latency occurs when a signal traveling on one wire or cable infringes on the signal traveling over an adjacent wire or cable.


False


The maximum distance a signal can travel and still be interpreted accurately is equal to a segment's maximum length.


True


Seven bits form a byte.


False


IEEE has divided the Transport layer into two sublayers.


False


Which network model ensures that no computer on a network has more authority than another?


peer-to-peer


A common way of sharing resources on a peer-to-peer network is by modifying the _____ controls using the computer's operating system.


file-sharing


A _____ facilitates communication and resource sharing between other computers on the network.


server


_____ networks are the most popular type of network for medium-and large-scale organizations.


Client/server


A _____ network is confined to a relatively small space.

A. NAN
B. MAN
C. WAN
D. LAN


LAN


Often, separate LANs are interconnected and rely on several _____ running many different applications and managing resources other than data.


servers


A _____ network connects clients and servers from multiple buildings.

A. NAN
B. MAN
C. WAN
D. TAN


MAN


Which OSI model layer initiates the flow of information?

A. Physical
B. Session
C. Application
D. Presentation


Application


Which OSI model layer manages data encryption?

A. Physical
B. Session
C. Application
D. Presentation


Presentation


In which OSI model layer does TCP operate?


Transport


Which type of protocol is useful when data must be transferred quickly?


connectionless


Transport layer protocols break large data units into _____.


segments


_____ is the process of reconstructing segmented data.


Reassembly


Each network node has _____ types of addresses.


two


In which OSI model layer does IP operate?


Network


Which Data Link sublayer manages access to the physical medium?


MAC


The _____ is a fixed number associated with the device's NIC.


physical address


In which OSI model layer do hubs operate?


Physical


In which OSI model layer do NIC's operate?


Physical and Data Link


Which IEEE standard describes Ethernet?


802.3


Which IEEE standard describes specifications for wireless transmissions?


802.11


A digital signal composed of a pulse of positive voltage represents a(n)_____.


1 (one)


When signals are free to travel in both directions over a medium simultaneously, the transmission is considered _____.


full-duplex


The most significant factor in choosing a transmission method is its _____.


throughput


The more twists per foot in a pair of wires, the more resistant the pair will be to _____.


cross talk


Many network problems can be traced to poor cable _____ techniques.


installation


The OSI reference model is composed of _____ layers.


7


The _____ layer of the OSI reference model is often referred to as the "hardware layer."


Physical


Which of the following is the organization that released and maintains the OSI reference model?

A. NFS
B. ISO
C. SNA
D. XNS


ISO


The layer of the OSI reference model that provides a user interface is the _____ layer.


Application


Which of the following layers of the OSI reference model does data compression?


Presentation


What is the correct order of the layers in the OSI reference model?


Physical, Data-link, Network, Transport, Session, Presentation, Application


Which OSI layer performs name recognition and the functions needed to allow two applications to communication over the network?


Network


Which OSI layer provides services such as file transfer software, email software, and database access?


Application


Which OSI layer is responsible for protocol conversion, translation of data, and excryption of data?


Presentation


Which OSI layer is responsible for repackaging messages and ensuring that packets are delivered error free, in sequence, and with no losses or duplications?


Transport


Which OSI layer is responsible for addressing messages and translating logical addresses and names into physical addresses, as well as for routing?


Network


The value A7 00 B1 07 is a form of _____ notation.


hexadecimal


All protocols are routable.


False


The command used to view IP information on a Windows workstation is ipconfig.


True


The most popular method for connecting nodes on a network is circuit switching.


False


A network's access method is its method of controlling how network nodes access the communications channel.


True


TCP is a(n) _____ subprotocol.


connection-oriented


A(n) _____ number is the address on a host where an application makes itself available to incoming or outgoing data.


port


_____ is more efficient than TCP for carrying messages that fit within one data packet.


UDP


The subprotocol that enables TCP/IP to internetwork - that is, to traverse more than one LAN segment and more than one type of network through a router is _____.


IP


_____ operates at the Network layer and manages multicasting.


IGMP


In the TCP/IP protocol suite, _____ is the core protocol responsible for logical addressing.


IP


In IPv4 addressing, each IP address is a unique _____ number.


32-bit


In IPv4 addressing, a node with an IP address of 168.34.88.29 belongs to a Class _____ network.


B


In IPv4 addressing, as IP address whose first octet is in the range of 192-223 belongs to a Class _____ network.


C


In dotted decimal notation, a(n) _____ separates each decimal.


period


The default subnet mask for a Class B network is _____.


255.255.0.0


If the standard port number for the Telnet service is 23, as host whose IPv4 address is 10.43.3.87 has a socket address for Telnet of _____.


10.43.3.87:23


In the domain name www.google.com, _____ is the top-level domain (TLD).


com


_____ is a terminal emulation protocol used to log on to remote hosts using the TCP/IP protocol suite.


Telnet


_____ is a utility that can verify that TCP/IP is installed, bound to the NIC, configured correctly, and communicating with the network.


PING


Which TCP/IP subprotocol provides connectionless datagram service?


UDP


The _____ protocol converts hardware addresses to IP addresses. It also maps an IP address to a physical address.


ARP


_____ is a network layer core protocol that reports on the success or failure of data delivery. It also returns messages about dropped packets.


ICMP


_____ is an automated means of assigning a unique IP address to devices on a network. It is used to dynamically assign free addresses from a pool to a network host during startup.


DHCP


Without _____, a bus network would suffer from signal bounce.


terminators


A complex combination of topologies is known as a _____ topology.


Hybrid


In packet switching, when packets reach their destination node, the node _____ them based on their control information.


reassembles


All Ethernet networks, independent of their speed or frame type, use an access method called _____.


CSMA/CD


A _____ occurs when two transmissions interfere with each other.


collision


On an Ethernet network, a(n) _____ is the portion of a network in which collisions occur if two nodes transmit data at the same time.


collision domain


1000Base-T is a standard for achieving throughputs _____ times faster than Fast Ethernet over copper cable.


10


The 10GBase-T standard is considered a breakthrough for transmitting 10Gbps over _____ medium.


twisted-pair


1000Base-SX has a maximum throughput of _____.


1Gbps


NICs contain a(n) _____, which transmits and receives data signals.


data transceiver


By far, the most popular expansion board NIC today is one that uses a(n) _____ bus.


PCIe


Buses differ according to their _____.


capacity


To install a NIC, you must first install the _____


hardware


Each time a computer starts up, the device drivers for all its connected peripherals are loaded into _____.


RAM


In general, a steady or blinking green LED, sometimes labeled _____, indicates that the NIC is functional and has a connection to the network.


LNK


In addition to viewing its LEDs and using a loopback plug to test a NIC's functionality, you can also check a NIC's connectivity with _____.


simple commands


Repeaters operate at the _____ layer of the OSI model.


Physical


A _____ is a repeater with more than one output port.


HUB


Traditional switches operate at the _____ layer of the OSI model.


Data Link


Switches can create _____ by grouping a number of ports into a broadcast domain.


VLANs


A _____ is a multiport connectivity device that directs data between nodes on a network.


router


_____ are combinations of networking hardware and software that connect two dissimilar kinds of networks.


Gateways