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O & P for Mr Zimmer Powerplant
kurt301

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Reciprocating Engines Oral

1. How are conventional reciprocating engines classified?


They are classified according to cylinder arrangement with respect to the crankshaft, (in-line, V-type, Radial, and Opposed). Or according to cooling method, IE ( air cooled, or liquid cooled.)


reciprocating engines oral.

2. what are the different types of piston rings?


compression rings, oil control rings, and scraper rings.


reciprocating engines oral.

3. What is the purpose of the oil control rings?


they are used to control the thickness of the oil film on the cylinder walls.


reciprocating engines oral.

4. What may be the result of installing piston rings incorrectly?


excessive oil consumption.


reciprocating engines oral.

5. What type of piston rods are commonly found in radial engines?


a master and articulating rod assembly.


reciprocating engine oral.

6. What type of the bearings are in general use in reciprocating engines?


plain bearings which are generally used for crankshaft, cam rings, camshaft, connecting rods, and accessory drive shaft bearings.

roller bearings which are used primarily as crankshaft main bearings but have other applications as well.

ball bearings which are used for supercharger and impeller shaft bearings, rocker arm bearings in some engines, and as propeller thrust bearings.



reciprocating engines oral.

7. why are thrust bearings generally of the ball bearing type?


because a ball bearing can take the load on all sides.


reciprocating engines oral.

8. what is an indication of valve blow by?


valve blow by is indicated by a hissing or whistle sound on pulling the propeller through prior to starting the engine. A cylinder compression check should be made to identify the faulty cylinder.


reciprocating engines oral.

9. what is the purpose of valve overlap?


valve overlap permits better volumetric efficiency and lowers the cylinder operating temperature.


reciprocating engines oral.

10. what causes engine sudden stoppage?


striking an object or engine seizure due to internal damage.


Reciprocating engines oral.

11. what type of inspection must be made after sudden stoppage of an engine do to striking an object?


the propeller drive shaft must be checked for misalignment, and the propeller checked for track.


Reciprocating Engines Oral.

12. What is the purpose of cranckshaft dynamic dampers used in aircraft engines?


Dampers are used to overcome forces which cause deflection of the cranckshaft and torsionalvibration.  These forces are generated by the power impulses of the pistons. Crankshaft vibrations are reduced by placing floating dampers (weights) in teh counterweight assembly, particularly in a single row type cranckshaft.


Reciprocating Engines Oral.

13. How would you make a "runout" check in a crankshaft that is still installed in the engine?


Remove the propeller from the shaft and attach a dial indicator guage to teh front of the crankcase. Adjust the position of the guage needle so that it is touching the shaft. Turn the engine through with the starter and note any changes in teh guage reading.


Reciprocating Engines Oral.

14. What is detonation?


Normal combustion is when the fuel-air mixture burns at a uniform rate across the combustion chamber. The temperature and pressure within the cylinder rises at at a normal rate as teh mixture burns. All fuels have critical limits of temperature and compression and beyond this limit they will ignite spontaneously and burn with explosive violence.  This instantaneous explosive burning of the last portion of the charge is called detonation. 


Reciprocation Engines Oral.

15. What can be learned about teh condition of an engine by studying the results of a compression check?


From the cylinder compression check, you can determine if the valves, piston rings, and pistons are adequatley sealing the combustion chamber.


Turbine Engines Oral.

1. What are the major components of a typical gas turbine engine?


A typical gas turbine engine consists of an air inlet, a compression section, a combustion section, a turbine section, an exhaust section, and the accessory section.


Turbine Engines Oral.

2. What are the two principal types of compressors used in turbojet aircraft


centrifugal flow and axial flow types.


Turbine Engines Oral.

3. What are the three types of combustion chamber systems?


can, annular, and can-annular.


Turbine Engines Oral.

4. What is the purpose of the interconnector tubes between can type combustion chambers.


To spread the flameto the combustion chambers that are not equipped with igniter plugs during engine starting.


Turbine Engines Oral.

5. What prevents burning of the liner walls in can type combustion chambers?


Louvers are provided along the axial length of the liners to direct a cooling layer of air along the inside wall of the liner.


Turbine Engines Oral.

6. What types of damage may be found when inspecting compressor blades?


Dents, Gouges, Scratches, Galling, Burns, Burrs, Pitting, and Cracks.


Turbine Engine Oral.

7. What is the location and function of the diffuser section in a turbine engine?


The diffuser is the divergent section of the engine located between the compressor section and the burner cans. Its function is to change the high velocity compressor discharge air to static pressure. It location is behind the compressor and fwd of the combustion section.


Turbine Engine Oral.

8. Where is the highest pressure point in a turbine engine?


The Diffuser.


Turbine Engine Oral.

9. How are compressor blades attached to a disk-type rotor?


The compressor blades are fitted into the disk by either bulb type or fir-tree type roots. The blades are then locked by means of screws, peening, locking wires, pins, or keys.


Turbine Engines Oral.

10. What is the purpose of the nozzle diaphragm or turbine nozzle?


First, the turbine nozzle must prepare the mass airflow for driving the turbine rotor. The stationary vanes are shaped and set at such an angle that they form a number of small nozzles that discharge the gasses a extremely high speed. That is, they convert a portion of the heat and pressure energy to velocity energy to drive the turbine. 

The second purpose of the turbine nozzle is to deflect the gases to a specific angle in teh direction of turbine rotation.


turbine engines oral.

11. what is a turbofan engine?


a turbofan engine is in principle, the same as a turboprop, except that the propeller is replaced by a duct-enclosed axial flow fan.


turbine engines oral.

12. what are the two most common types of thrust reversers?


the mechanical blockage type in the aerodynamic blockage type.


turbine engines oral.

13 what is a split compressor system in a turbine engine?


the split compressor system requires two concentric shaft joining the turbine stages to their respective compressors.

Different compressors are driven by different turbines.

N1=direct air, prevent stall
N2= high speed.


turbine engines oral.

14. what is one method of relieving thermal stress on a turbine disc?


one means is to bleed cooling air on to the face of the disk


turbine engine oral.

15. what maybe the indications if a turbojet engine is out of trim?


the engine has high exhaust gas temperature (EGT) at target engine pressure ratio (EPR) for takeoff.


engine inspection oral.

1. what steps must be taken in order to prepare an aircraft for 100 hour or annual inspection?


remove or open all necessary inspection plates, access doors, fairings and cowlings, then thoroughly clean aircraft and the engine


engine inspection oral

2. what may be used as a guide for 100 hour inspection on an aircraft engine?


FAR Part 43, Appendix D.


engine inspection oral.

3. what additional inspection must be performed if the cylinder compression is weak.


you must make an internal cylinder inspection for improper internal tolerances


engine inspection oral.

4. where are the engine operating limitations found?


in the aircraft specifications or type certificate data sheet.


engine inspection oral.

5. where can a mechanic look to identify an aircraft engine?


on the engine identification plate that is affixed to the engine at an accessible location.


engine inspection oral.

6. what publication is needed to inspect an engine for conformity with specifications?


the engine specifications for engine type: certificate data sheet.


engine inspection oral.

7. what type of FAA approval is required when a change to an engine type design is not enough to require a new type certificate?


a supplemental type certificate is required.


engine inspection oral.

8. What type of FAA approval is required when a change is made to the engine principle of operation?


A new type certificate must be obtained.


engine instrument systems oral.

1. what are the units in an engine fuel flow system?


the system consists of a transmitter and an indicator for each engine.


engine instrument systems oral.

2. where is the fuel flow transmitter located?


it is mounted in the fuel line between the engine driven pump and the carburetor.


engine instrument systems oral.

3. what type of readout is indicated on the fuel flow system.


The indicator is calibrated to record the fuel flow in pounds of fuel per hour.


engine instrument systems oral.

4. what is the reason for monitoring fuel flow?


in addition to fuel consumption, the operator can determine from the fuel flow indication whether the engine is operating at the correct fuel-air mixture for a given power setting.


engine instrument systems oral.

5. what does the engine tachometer indicate?


it indicates crankshaft speeds (RPM)


engine instrument systems oral.

6. What are turbine engine tachometers designed to indicate?


they are designed to indicate percent of rotor RPM


engine instrument systems oral.

7. what is turbow jet EPR? (engine pressure ratio)


it is the ratio between total turbine discharge pressure to total inlent pressure and is an indication of thrust being developed by the engine.


engine instrument systems oral.

8. what is the electrical source for a cylinder head temperature guage?


the guage is connected to a thermocouple attached to the cylinder which tests show to be the hottest part of the engine.


engine instrument systems oral.

9. where is a carburetor air temperature bulb located?


it is located in the air intake passage to the engine.


engine instrument systems oral.

10. how can turbine EGT be checked without operating the engine?


by checking resistance to thermocouples and circuits.


engine fire protection systems oral.

1. what types of fire detectors are used for engine fire protection systems?


they are overheat detectors, rate of temperature-rise detectors, and flame detectors.


engine fire protection systems oral.

2. when using a thermocouple type fire detection system, what happens if the engine overheats slowly?


a thermocouple depends on the rate of temperature rise and will not give a warning if the engine slowly overheats or a short circuit develops.


engine fire protection systems oral.

3. describe the use of a kidde continuous loop fire detector system.


the kide continuous loop fire detection system has two wires imbedded in a special ceramic core within an inconel tube. One wire acts as an internal ground and the other wire is a hot lead that provides a current when the ceramic core material changes its resistance with a rise in temperature.



engine fire protection systems oral.

4. where does a thermocouple fire cetector system get its electrical power to operate?


the thermocouple produces power to close a relay and power from the aircraft electrical system flows through the relay to the warnign light.


engine fire protection systems oral.

5. describe a thermal switch fire detector system?


thermal switch systems have one or more lights that are energized by the aircraft electrical system when a heat sensitive thermal switch closes the circuit at a specific temperature.


engine fire protection systems oral.

6. how are thermal switches electrically connected in the circuit?


the thermal switches are connected in parallel with each other but in series with the warning light. A temperature rise in any one section of the circuit will cause a thermal switch to close and complete the circuit to indicate a fire or overheat condition.


engine fire protection systems oral.

7. what is the most common cause of a false fire warning in a continous loop detector system?


the most common cause of a false warning is dents, kinks, or crushed sensing element causing an internal wire to short to the ground wire or outer tubing. 


engine fire protectioin systems oral.

8. what two methods are used to discharge fire extinguishing agents.


mechanical and electrical.


engine fire protection systems oral.

9. what method is used to release the fire extinguishing agent in a typical turbine engine fire protection system?


one common method is to equip the fire extinguishing containers with dishcarge valves that are operated by electrically dishcarged cartridges. The discharge plug is sealed with a breakable disk that is ruptured by the explosive cartridge and the contents of the bottle is discharged into the engine area.


engine fire protection systems oral.

10. What method is used to determine proper fire extinguisher container pressure? 


Check the container guage to determine if the pressure is between the prescribed minimum and maximum limits.


engine fire protection systems oral.

11. what is the meaning of a squibs shelf life?


it means that there is an experation date on the squib and that experation date applies to the squib whether it is installed on the airframe or not.


engine fire protection systems oral.

12. what method other than the pressure guage is used to indicate low agent pressure in a container.


some aircraft are equipped with a low pressure warning light in the cockpit.


engine fire protection systems oral.

13. what is the purpose of the yellow and the red discharge plugs in a turbine engine fire extinguishing systems?


the yellow plug indicates normal discharge and the red plug indicates thermal discharge.


engine fire protection systems oral.

14. what are the two methods commonly used to distribute the fire extinguishing agent to the engine?


many systems use perforated tubing or discharge nozzles to distribute the agent.


engine fire protection systems oral.

15. How does the fire extinguishing agent put out the fire?


it dilutes the atmosphere so that it will not support combustion.


engine fire protection systems oral.

16. what is an HRD fire extinguishing system?


High Rate of Discharge.


engine fire protection systems oral.

17. how is the fire extinguishing agent distributed from an HRD system?


it is delivered through open end tubes.


engine fire protection systems oral.

18. How long does it take to discharge the extinguishing agent in an HRD system


it only takes 1 to 2 seconds.


engine electrical systems oral.

1. where is the generator rating and performance data located?


it is stamped on the name plate attached to the generator.


engine electrical systems oral.

2. what method is used to control the voltage of an aircraft alternator?


voltage regulator.


engine electrical systems oral.

3. what determines the frequency of the voltage of an alternator.


the frequency depends upon the speed of rotation of the rotor and the number of poles.


engine electrical systems oral.

4. how is alternator frequency maintained?


By installing a constant speed drive (CSD) ubit between the engine and the alternator.


engine electrical systems oral.

5. what are the three basic types of DC motors?


Series motors, shunt motors, and compound motors.


engine electrical systems oral.

6. Name the parts of a DC motor


The armature, the field, the brushes, and the frame.


engine electrical systems oral.

7. What is a starter-generator system used on many turbine engines?


The system uses a starter-generator which operates as a starter motor to drive the engine during starting and after the engine has reached a self sustaining speed it operates as a generator to supply the electrical system power.


engine electrical systems oral.

8.What is the American Wire Guage system of designating electrical wire size?


a gage number is assigned the wire according to its cross sectional area the smaller the gage number, the larger the wire.


engine electrical systems oral.

9. what is a CSD?


it is a transmission that drives a generator at a constant speed.


engine electrical systems oral.

10. When installing single wires or wire bundles how much slack is normally allowed between supports


slack between supports should normally not exceed one half inch.


engine electrical systems oral.

11. What precaution should be taken when running wires close to heating ducts or exhaust stacks?


The wires should be insulated with a high temperature shielding material.


lubrication systems oral.

1. what is the primary purpose of lubricant in an aircraft?


to reduce friction between moving parts.



lubrication systems oral.

2. what is the most important property that aircraft reciprocating engine oil must posses?


Viscosity.


lubrication systems oral.

3. what factors must be considered in determing the proper grade of oil to use in a specific engine?


the operating load, rotational speeds, and operating temperatures are the most important factors to be considered.


lubrication systems oral.

4. what is the purpose of the oil flow control valve?


 the oil flow control valve, located on the oil cooler, regulates the flow of oil either into or around the oil cooler.


lubrication systems oral.

5. what are the main oil contaminants?


they are: gasoline, moisture, acids, dirt, carbon, and metallic particles.


librication systems oral.

6. From what location on a reciprocating engine is the oil temperature usually taken?


In a dry sump lubrication system the oil temperature bulb is located anywhere in teh oil inlet line between the oil tank and the engine.  Wet sump systems have the temperature bulb located where it senses the temperature after the oil passes through the oil cooler.  In either system the bulb is located where it measures oil temperature before it enters teh hot sections of the engine.


lubrication systems oral.

7. what do metallic particles on an oil screen indicate?


mettalic particles may be an indication of the internal failure of an engine.


lubrication systems oral.

8. what could cause oil foaming?


foaming can be caused by diluted oil, contaminated oil, or the oil level to high.


lubrication systems oral.

9. what would be an indication of blocked oil coller passages?


high oil temperature.


lubrication systems oral.

10. what would be an indication of inadequate oil supply.


low oil pressure and high oil temperature.


lubrication systems oral.

11. what type of oil is used in a turbine engine lubrication systems?


specially developed synthetic oils.




lubrication systems oral.

12. what is the purpose of a deairetor


it is an anti foaming device used in the oil system.


lubrication systems oral.

13. where is the adjustments made to oil pressure?


at the oil pump.


lubrication systems oral.

14. what are two types of oil coolers used in turbine engine lubrication systems.


the air cooled oil cooler and fuel cooled oil cooler are the two basic types in general use.


lubrication systems oral.

15. what are the functions of engine oil in a reciprocating engine?


in addition to lubrication, oil cools various parts of the engine, helps to seal the combustion chamber by providing a film between the cylinder walls and the rings, and aids in cleaning the engine by carrying engine residues to the oil filter.


Ignition Systems Oral

1. What is a magneto?


A magneto is a special type of engine driven AC generator that uses a permanent magnet as a source of energy. The magneto develops a high voltage which is used to fire spark plugs.


Ignition Systems Oral.

2. What is the purpose of the condenser in a high tension magneto electrical system.


to prevent arching at the points and to hasten the collapse of the magnetic field around the primary coil.


Ignition Systems Oral.

3. Where is the E-gap position in a magneto?


The E-gap position is when the rotating magnet is a few degrees past the nuetral position.



Ignition Systems Oral.

4. what are the three major circuits of a high tension magneto system?


the magnetic circuit, the primary electrical circuit, and the secondary electrical circuit.


Ignition Systems Oral.

5. what are the components of a high tension magnetic circuit?


The magetic circuit consists of a permanent multipole rotating magnet, a soft iron core, and pole shoes.


Ignition Systems Oral.

6. what is the piston position when a spark occurs in a cylinder?




The piston is a specified number of crankshaft degrees before top dead center of the compression stroke.


Ignition Systems Oral.

7. What is a dual magneto ignition system?


The dual magneto system incorporates two magnetos is one housing and one rotatine magnet and a cam are common to two sets of breaker points and coils.  On radial engines, the right magneto fires all the front plugs and the left magneto fires all teh aft plugs.


Ignition Systems Oral.

8. When the ignition system switch is in the off position, what is teh condition of the primary circuit?


it is completed through the ignition switch to ground.


Ignition Systems Oral.

9. What three conditions are required to fire the plugs in a cylinder when the piston is in the prescribed position?


The magneto rotor must be in the E-gap position the breaker points must open, and the distributors must be aligned with that cylinder.


Ignition Systems Oral.

10. In a dual magneto ignition system, what part of the system is grounded when the ignition switch is placed in the right position?


The left magneto circuit will be grounded.


Ignition Systems Oral.

11. What is internal timing of the magneto?


It is adjusting the breaker points to open when the rotating magnet is in the E-gap position.


Ignition Systems Oral.

12. What is the purpose of an impulse coupling used with a magneto?


The purpose of an impulse coupling is to spin teh magneto rapidly to produce a hot spark for starting the engine and at teh same time retard the timing of the spark.


Ignition Systems Oral.

13. What is the proper spark plug reach?


When the electrode end of the plug inside the cylinder is in the best position to acheive ignition.


Ignition Systems Oral.

14. What type of ignition system is used in most turbine engines?


A typical turbine engine is equipped with an electronic capacitor type ignition system.


Ignition Systems Oral.

15. What is the function of the igniter plugs in a turbine engine?


to provide a discharge gap for the current which is stored in the capacitor. The discharge results in a high intensity spark which ignites the fuel-air mixture.


Ignition Systems Oral.

16. When are turbine engine ignition systems normally in use?


The igntion system is normally required only for starting or restarting the engine.



Ignition Systems Oral.

17. Define the term duty cycle.


it is when the starter can only run so long until a rest period is required.


Fuel Metering Systems Oral.

1. Where are the fuel spray nozzles located in a turbine engine?


They are located either externally or internally on the combustion chamber in such a way that the fuel can be sprayed into the combustion area.


Fuel Metering Systems Oral.

2. Name two heat sources for the operation of the fuel heaters used in turbine engines?


turbine engine fuel heaters operate as heat exchangers. Fuel lines are routed through the fuel heater, which uses as a heat source either bleed air or engine lubricating oil.  If bleed air is used as a heat source it is called an air-to-liquid heat exchanger, and when oil is used it is called a liquid-to-liquid heat exchanger


Fuel Metering Systems Oral.

3. what engine variables are sensed by a hydromechanical fuel control?


The fuel control senses power lever position, engine rpm, either compressor inlet pressure or temperature, burner pressure or compressor discharge pressure, and either EGT or TTT.
 


Fuel Metering Systems Oral.

4. what are the two most commonly used carburetors in small reciprocating engines.


they are the float-type carburetor, and the pressure type carburetor.


Fuel Metering Systems Oral.

5. What type fuel control unit is used in a turbine engine?


Both hydromechanical and electronic fuel control units are in use today. however, the most commonly used fuel control unit is the completely hydromechanical type.




Fuel Metering Systems Oral.

6. What is the purpose of a mixture control in a float type carberator?


It is to control the the fuel-air mixture as air density changes with changes in attitude.


Fuel Metering Systems Oral.

7. Describe the purpose and operation of a venturi.


The Venturi performs three functions, it proportions the fuel air mixture, lowers the pressure at the discharge nozzle, and limits the airflow at full throttle.


Fuel Metering Systems Oral.

8. What will be the result of using excessivley rich idle mixtures?


This will cause spark plug fouling.


Fuel Metering Systems Oral.

9. what is the purpose of the economizer system in a float-type carburator.


The econimizer is essentially a valve which is closed at throttle levels below 60 and 70 percent of rated power, but provides additional fuel for cooling the engine to prevent detonation at higher throttle settings.


Fuel Metering Systems Oral.
10. where does a pressure injection caburetor obtain fuel pressure?


It obtains fuel pressure from the boost pump for starting and from the engine driven fuel pump for normal operation of the engine.


Fuel Metering Systems Oral.

11. What operates an automatic mixture control (amc) on a pressure carburetor?


The AMC contains a dealed bellow that expands and contracts with changes in atmospheric pressure.  The movement of the bellow operates a tapered needle that controls the impact air pressure inthe the A chamber of the carburetor.


Fuel Metering Systems Oral.

12. What RPM indication should result when the mixture control is placed in the idle cutoff position when the idle mixtrue is set correctly.


There should be a slight increase in RPM, followed by a rapid drop of RPM to zero.


Fuel Metering Systems Oral.

13. What is the purpose of filling a pressure injection carburetor full of fuel and allowing it to soak for a period of about 8 hours prior to installation.


This is done in order to soften the diaphragms and make them as pliable as they were when the carburetor was originally calibrated.


Engine Fuel Systems Oral.

1. What is the purpose of strainers in a fuel system?


They are used to prevent foreign matter from entering the carburetor.


Engine Fuel Systems Oral.

2. What is the purpose of fuel selector valves.


They provide a means of shutting off fuel flow, for tank and engine selection, for crossfeed, and forfuel transfer.


Engine Fuel Systems Oral.

3. what should be looked for when inspecting an engine driven pump.


look for fuel leaks and security of mounting.



Engine Fuel Systems Oral.

4. what is the purpose of an engine driven fuel pump?


The engine driven fuel pump must deliver a continuous supply of fuel at the proper pressure at all times during engine operation.


Engine Fuel Systems Oral.

5. What happens to the excess fuel not required by the engine in a constant displacement pump.


The presure relief relief valve opens and the fuel is routed back to the inlet side of the pump.


Engine Fuel Systems Oral.

6. what is the most common type of fuel boost pump?


The Electrcially driven centrifigul type pump.

(eliminates air) (located in tank)


Engine Fuel Systems Oral.

7. What is the purpose of the bypass valve in the engine driven fuel pump?


The Bypass valve provides a path around the pump vanes for starting the engine, and to allow fuel to bypass the pump in case of pump failure.


Engine Fuel Systems Oral.

8. What is the purpose of using boost pumps in a fuel system?


Electric boost pumps are used to supply fuel to a pressure carburetor during engine starting and in case of engine driven pump failure. However, a man function of a boost pump is to keep the pressure on teh suction side of the engine driven pump from becoming low enough to permit the fuel to boil when operating at high altitudes.


Engine Fuel Systems Oral.

9. What are the three general causes of vapor lock?


They are low fuel pressure, high fuel temperatures, and excessive fuel turbulence.


Engine Fuel Systems Oral.

10. Turbine engine fuel pumps may be divided into what two destinct system categories?


constant displacement and variable displacement.


Engine Fuel Systems Oral.

11. What category is a turbine engine driven gear-type pump.


Constant displacement.


engine fuel systems oral.

12. what type of fuel pump can be made to vary the fuel flow at any speed?


the variable displacement pump.


engine fuel systems oral

13. what part of a gas turbine engine fuel system is very susceptible to the formation of ice?


the fuel filter


engine fuel systems oral

14. how is the engine fuel system protected from ice formations?


by the use of fuel heaters


engine fuel systems oral

15. why is a micron fuel filter provided with a bypass valve as a necessary safety factor?


because the small openings in this type of filter make it very susceptible to clogging.


engine indication systems oral.

1. what are the three major parts of a reciprocating engine induction system?


the air scoop and the ducting, the carburetor, and the intake manifold.


engine indication systems oral

2. What effect does induction system icing have on engine performance?


induction system icing can cause an engine to act erratically and lose power.


engine indication systems oral

3. what method is used to prevent or remove induction system ice in a reciprocating engine?


the most common method of preventing or removing ice formation in the induction system is by the use of heated air.


engine indication systems oral.

4. how is ice cleared and some aircraft induction systems if the carburetor heat is too low to clear the ice?


a fluid such as alcohol, anilol, or mersol, is sprayed into the induction system ahead of the carburetor. The fluid will dislodge the ice which is ingested by the engine.


engine indication systems oral

5. what engine indication can be the result of a dirty air filter?


low power.


engine indication systems oral

6. what are the two general classifications of superchargers used and reciprocating engine induction systems?


they are classified as gear driven (supercharger) or exhaust driven (turbocharger) systems.


engine indication systems oral.

7. where does an externally driven supercharger get its power?


the exhaust gases are directed against a turbine, for this reason they are commonly called turbochargers.


engine indication systems oral.

8. what unit regulates the amount of exhaust gases to the turbine of a turbocharger?


the waste gate.


engine indication systems oral

9. what type of power is used to control the position of the turbocharger waste gate on some engines?


oil pressure to an actuating piston.


engine cooling systems oral.

1. What is the most common means of regulating the cooling air flow through a radial engine?


by the use of cowl flaps.


engine cooling systems oral

2. what is the purpose of the fins on engine cylinders?


to increase the effective size of the cylinder for cooling.


engine cooling systems oral

3. what other engine characteristics are designed to aid in engine cooling besides cooling fins?


the engine cowling and baffles are designed to force air over the cylinder cooling fins.


engine cooling systems oral

4. why is the \"open and close\" adjustment during installation of cowl flaps important?


for each engine installation, the cowl flaps are set for tolerances that will permit them to open and close the correct amount to keep the cylinder head temperature within allowable limits.


engine cooling systems oral

5. what should be done to cylinders when too much of the cooling fin area is broken off?


the cylinder should be replaced because it cannot cool properly and a hotspot will develop.


engine cooling systems oral.

6. when should cowl flaps be kept in the fully open position?


normally during all ground operations.


engine cooling systems oral.

7. what publication should be referred to before reprofiling cylinder cooling fins?


the manufacturers service or overhaul manual should be used to obtain the allowable limits.


engine cooling systems oral.

8. what power sources are used to operate the cowl flaps?


cowl flaps may be operated by electrical power, hydraulic power, or manually.


engine cooling systems oral.

9. what is the purpose of blast tubes that are built into the bagfles on a reciprocating engine.


To direct jets of cooling air on to the rear spark plug elbows of each cylinder to prevent overheating of the ignition leads.


engine cooling systems oral

10. what are the main reasons that excessive heat in a reciprocating engine is undesirable?


excessive heat shortens the life of the engine parts, impares lubrication and effects combustion.


engine cooling systems oral.

11. what is an augmenter system?


augmentors consist of two pairs of tubes running from the engine compartment to the rear of the nacelle. the exhaust gas collector feeds exhaust gases into the inner augmenter tubes. where that have passed over the engine is fed into the outer tubes where it is heated, by the exhaust tubes and then expelled to mix with the exhaust gases. the heating of the air causes it to form a high temperature, low pressure, jet like exhaust which draws additional cooling air over the engine. the heated air is sometimes used for cabin heating, defrosting, and anti-icing.


engine cooling systems oral

12. what is the source of air that is directed to turbine engine bearings for cooling?


it is bleed air from the compressor section of the engine.


engine cooling systems oral

13. what areas of a turbine engine are cooled by the secondary air passing through the engine?


the combustion chambers and the turbines.


engine exhaust systems oral

1. what are two types of reciprocating engine exhaust systems?


the short stack system and the collector system.


engine exhaust systems oral

2. what are the possible hazards of exhaust system failure?


depending on the location and type of exhaust system failure, it can result in carbon monoxide poisoning of the crew and passengers, partial or complete loss of engine power, and an aircraft fire.


engine exhaust systems oral

3. what type of exhaust system is generally used on low-powered non supercharged engines?


the short (open) stack system.


engine exhaust systems oral

4. what type of exhaust system is used on turbocharged engines?


the exhaust collector system.


engine exhaust systems oral

5. which type of exhaust system creates a higher exhaust back pressure?


the collector system.


engine exhaust systems oral

6. what is the purpose of a reciprocating engine exhaust system?


to dispose of the high temperature, noxious gases that are discharged by the engine


engine exhaust systems oral

7. what happens when lead, zink, or galvanized marks are made on an exhaust system?


the mark is absorbed by the metal when it is heated and causes a change in the molecular structure of the metal.


engine exhaust systems oral.

8. what type of visual indication can usually be seen in the area of an exhaust leak?


exhaust leaks usually leave flat grey or sooty black streaks on the pipes in the area of the leak.


engine exhaust systems oral.

9. what is the usual cause of muffler and heat exchanger failures?


they are usually caused by thermal and vibration cracking or ruptures in areas of stress concentration.


engine exhaust systems oral

10. where are exhaust manifold and stack failures most likely to occur?


these failures usually occur at welded or clamped points in the system.


engine exhaust systems oral.

11. what is a common cause of the waste gate unit malfunctioning in a turbocharger system?


the most common cause of waste gate malfunctioning is carbon buildup, causing the waste gate valve to stick in the \"closed\" position.


engine exhaust systems oral

12. what factors are affected if the area of the exhaust nozzle of a turbine engine is changed?


the size of the exhaust nozzle affects both the engine performance and the exhaust gas temperature.


engine exhaust systems oral.

13. what are the probes in a turbine exhaust tailpipe used for?


they are used to measure exhaust gas temperature EGT, or pressure for an EPR system


propellers oral

1. what is the purpose of a propeller?


to create thrust and either pull or push the airplane through the air.


propellers oral

2. what type of propeller has the blade angle built into the propeller and cannot be changed?


a fixed pitch propeller.


propellers oral

3. what is the purpose of the metal tipping on the leading edge of a wooden propeller?


it is to protect the propeller from damage caused by fine particles in the air during landing, taxiing, and take off.


propellers oral

4. what is the process of determining the positions of the tips of the propeller blades relative to each other?


Tracking


propellers oral

5. what tool is used to determine propeller blade angle?


A universal propeller protractor.


propellers oral

6. what are the aerodynamic forces and loads acting on a rotating propeller blade?


a rotating propeller is acted upon by centrifugal, twisting, and bending forces.


propellers oral

7. what is the meaning of the propeller blade \"back\" and \"face\"?


the cambered or curved side of the propeller blade is called the blade back. This is the side of the blade that faces away from the engine. The flat of the propeller blade is known as the blade face. This side of the blade faces the engine.


propellers oral

8. what should be used to clean aluminum and steel propeller blades and hubs?


they should be washed with a suitable cleaning solvent using a brush or cloth.


propellers oral

9. what positions are used on a balance stand to check a two bladed propeller for static balance?


first the vertical position and then a horizontal position


propellers oral

10. when centrifugal force acts on the counterweights of a hydraulic counterweight propeller, it tends to rotate the blades in which direction?


centrifugal force tends to increase the blade pitch.


propellers oral

11. why do you put the blades of a counterweight propeller into high pitch before stopping the engine?


this type of propeller has a movable cylinder that slides over the propeller piston. in the low pitch position, the cylinder is outboard and the piston is exposed to the open air. but in the high pitch position, the cylinder moves inboard and covers the propeller piston. in this position the piston is protected from dirt and moisture in the air. this is particularly important if the airplane engine will not be operated for several days.


propellers oral

12. how is feathering accomplished on a constant speed counterweight propeller?


releasing governor oil pressure allows the counterweights and feathering springs to move the blades to the feathered position.


propellers oral

13. what type of ice control systems are used for propellers?


either fluid, or electrical deicing systems, are used for deicing propellers.


propellers oral

14. what is the purpose of the slinger ring on some propeller installations?


propeller deicing fluid is ejected from a stationary nozzle on the engine into a scoop attached to the rear of the propeller assembly. this U shaped channel is called the slinger ring. the fluid under pressure of centrifugal force is transferred through a nozzle to the propeller blades.


auxiliary power units oral

1. frequently, an aircraft auxiliary power unit generator is the same as?


the engine driven generators.


auxiliary power units oral

2. fuel is normally supplied to an APU from?


the airplanes main fuel supply.


auxiliary power units oral

3. and APU is usually rotated during start by?


an electric starter.


auxiliary power units oral

4. the function of an APU air inlet plenum is to?


stabilize the pressure of the air before it enters the compressor.


auxiliary power units oral

5. when in operation, the speed of an APU?


remains at or near rated speed regardless of the load condition.


auxiliary power units oral

6. generally when maximum APU shaft output power is being used in conjunction with pneumatic power?


pneumatic loading will be automatically modulated to maintain a safe EGT.


auxiliary power units oral

7. when necessary, APU engine cooling before shutdown may be accomplished by?


closing the bleed air valve.


auxiliary power units oral

8. usually, most of the load placed on an APU occurs when?


the bleed air valve is opened.


auxiliary power units oral.

9. fuel scheduling during APU start under varying pneumatic and electrical loads is maintained?


automatically by the APU fuel control system.


auxiliary power units oral.

10. on APU\'s equipped with a free turbine and load compressor, the primary function of the load compressor is to?


provide bleed air for aircraft pneumatic systems.