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Medical Terminology Ch. 8 Digestive System
Naikurie

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absorption


Process by which nutrient material is taken into the bloodstream or lymph.
absorpt: to suck in
-ion: process


amylase


Enzyme that breaks down starch. Ptyalin is a salivary amylase and amylopsin is a pancreatic amylase.

amyl: starch

-ase: enzyme


anabolsim


Building up of the body substance in the constructive phase of metabolism.
anabol: a building up
-ism: condition


anorexia


Lack of appetite
an-: lack of
-orexia: appetite


appendectomy


Surgical excision of the appendix.

append: appendix

-ectomy: surgical excision


appendicitis


Inflammation of the appendix. A point of tenderness in acute appendicitis is know as McBurney''s point.


ascities


Accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity.


biliary


Pertaining to or conveying bile.
bil/i: gall, bile
-ary: pertaining to


bilirubin


Orange-colored bile pigment produced by the separation of hemoglobin into parts that are excreted by the liver cells.


black hairy tongue


Condition in which the tongue is covered by hairlike papilae entangled with threads produced by Aspergillus niger or Candida albicans fungi. This unusual condition could be caused by poor hygiene and/or overgrowth of fungi due to antibiotic therapy.


bowel


Intestine


buccal


Pertaining to the cheek.
bucc-cheek


catabolism


Literally a casting down; a breaking of complex substances into more basic elements.
catabol: a casting down


celiac


Pertaining to the abdomen.
celi: abdomen, belly


cheilosis


Abnormal condition of the lip as seen in riboflavin and other B-complex deficiencies.
cheil: lip



cholecystectomy


Surgical excision of the gallbladder.
chol/e: gall, bile
cyst: bladder
-ectomy: surgical excision


cholecystitis


Inflammation of the gallbladder.
chol/e: gall, bile
cyst: bladder


choledochotomy


Surgical incision of the common bile duct.
choledoch/o: common bile duct
-tomy: incision


chyle


Milky fluid of intestinal digestion composed of lymph and emulsified fats.


cirrhosis


Chronic degenerative liver disease characterized by changes in the lobes; parenchymal cells and the lobules are infiltrated with fat.


colectomy


Surgical excision of part of the colon.



colon cancer


Malignancy of the colon; sometimes called colorectal cancer.


colonic


Pertaining to the colon.


colonoscope


Thin, lighted flexible instrument that is moved through the colon during a colonoscopy.
-scope: instrument for examining.


colonoscopy


Visual examination of the colon via a colonscope.
-scopy: visual examination, to view, examine


colostomy


Lit. the creation of a new opening into the colon, performed for the purpose of evacuating the bowel and can be required because of colon cancer, etc.
-stomy: new opening


constipation


Infrequent passage of unduly hard and dry feces.
constipat: to press together


defecation


Evacuation of the bowel.
defecat: to remove dregs


deglutination


Act or process of swallowing


dentalgia


Pain in the tooth; toothache
dent: tooth
-algia: pain


dentist


Specialist in dentistry.
-ist: one who specializes


dentition


Type, number, and arrangement of teeth in the dental arch.


diarrhea


Frequent passage of unformed watery stools.
dia-: through
-rrhea: flow


digestion


Process by which food is changed in the mouth, stomach, and intestines by chemical, mechanical, and physical action so it can be absorbed by the body.


diverticulitis


Inflammation of the diverticula in teh colon.
diverticul: diverticula


duodenal


Pertaining to the duodenum; the first part of the small intestine.


dysentery


An intestinal disease characterized by inflammation of the mucous membrane.
dys-: difficult
enter: intestine


dyspepsia


difficulty in digestion.
dys-: difficult
-pepsia: to digest


dysphagia


Difficulty in swallowing.

dys-: difficult

-phagia: to eat, to swallow


emesis


Vomiting.

eme: to vomit




enteric


Pertaining to the small intestine.
enter: small intestine


enteritis


Inflammation of the small intestine.


enzyme


Protein substance capable of causing chemical changes in other substances without being changed itself.


epigastric


Pertaining to the region above the stomach.
epi-: above
gastr: stomach


eructation


Belching
eructant: a break out


esophageal


Pertaining to the esophagus


feces


Body waste expelled from the bowels; stools, excreta


fibroma


Fibrous, encapsulated connective tissue tumor


flatus


Gas in the digestive tract. Also, the expelling o gas from a body orifice, especially the anus.


gastrectomy


Surgical excision of a part or the whole stomach.

gastr: stomach


gastric


Pertaining to the stomach.


gastroenterology


Study of the stomach and the intestines.


gastroesophageal


Pertaining to the stomach and esophagus.


gastroesophegeal reflux


Condition that occurs when the muscle between the esophagus and the stomach, the lower esophageal sphincter, is weak or relaxes inappropriately, allowing the stomach's contents to back up (reflux) into the esophagus.


gavage


To feed liquid or semiliquid food via tube.


gingivitis


Inflammation of the gums.
gingiv: gums


glossotomy


Surgical incision of the tongue.


glycogenesis


Formation of glycogen from glucose.
glyc/o: sweet, sugar


halitosis


Bad breath.
halit: breath


hematemesis


Vomiting of blood.
hemat: blood
-emesis: vomiting


hematochezia


Passage of stools that contain red blood rather than tarry stools.


hemorrhoid


Mass of dilated, tortuous veins in the anorectum, external and internal.
hemorrh: vein, liable to bleed.
-oid: resemble


hepatoma


Tumor of the liver.
hepat: liver


hernia


Abnormal protrusion of an organ or an part of an organ through the wall of the body cavity that normally contains it.


herniorrhapy


Surgical repair of a hernia.
herni/o: hernia
-rrhaphy: suture


hyperalimentation


Intravenous infusion of a hypertonic solution to sustain life; used in patients whose gastrointestinal tracts are not functioning properly.
hyper: excessive
aliment: nourishment


hyperemesis


Excessive vomiting


hypogastric


Pertaining to below the stomach.
hypo-:below
gratr: stomach



ileitis


Inflammation of the ileum.
ile: ilieum


ileostomy


Creation of a new opening through the abdominal wall into the ileum.


irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)


Disorder that interferes with the normal functions of the large intestines (colon); characterized by a group of symptoms, including crampy abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, and diarrhea.


labial


Pertaining to the lips.
labi: lip


laparotomy


Surgical incision into the abdomen.
lapar/o: abdomen


lavage


To wash out a cavity.


laxative


Substance that acts to loosen the bowels.
laxat: to lossen
-ive: nature of, quality of


lingual


Pertaining to the tongue.
lingu: tongue


lipolysis


Destruction of fat.


liver transplant


Surgical process of transferring the liver from a donor to a patient.


malabsorption


Process of bad or inadequate absorption of nutrients from the intestinal tract.
absorpt: to suck in


mastication


Chewing
masticat: to chew


melena


Black, tarry feces (stools) caused by the action of intestinal juices on blood.


mesentery


Pertaining to the peritoneal fold encircling the small intestines and connecting the intestines to the posterior abdominal wall.
mes: middle
-enter: small intestine
-y: pertaining to


nausea


Feeling of the inclination to vomit


pancreas transplant


Surgical process of transferring the pancreas from a donor to a patient


Pancreatitis


Inflammation of the pancreas


paralytic ileus


Paralysis of the intestines that causes distention and symptoms of acute obstruction and prostration.
paralyt: to disable, paralysis
-ic: pertaining to
ile: a twistine
-us: pertaining to


peptic


Pertaining to gastric digestion.
pept: to digest


periodontal


Pertaining to the area around the tooth.
peri-around
odont: tooth


periodontal disease


Inflammation and degeneration of the gums and surrounding bone, which frequently causes loss of the teeth.


peristalsis


Wavelike contraction that occurs involuntarily in hollow tubes of the body, especially the alimentary canal.


pharyngeal



Pertaining to the pharynx


pilonidal cyst


Closed sac in the crease of the sacrococcygeal region caused by a developmental defect that permits epithelial tissue and hair to be trapped below the skin.
pil/o: hair
nid: nest
-al: pertaining to
cyst: sac


postprandial (PP)


After a meal.
post-: after
prand/i: meal


proctologist


Physician who specializes in the study of the anus and the rectum.

prot/o: anus and rectum

log: study of

-ist: one who specializes


proctoscope


Instrument used to view the anus and rectum.

proct/o: anus and rectum

-scope: instrument for examining


pyloric


Pertaining to the gatekeeper, the opening between the stomach and the duodenum. In pyloric stenosis seen in an infant, the hypertrophied pyloric muscle causes symptoms of projectile vomiting and visible peristalsis.


rectocele


Hernia of part of the rectum into the vagina.
rect/o: rectum
-cele: hernia


sialadenitis


Inflammation of the salivary gland.
sial: saliva
aden: gland
-itis: inflammation


sigmoidoscope


Instrument used to view the sigmoid.

sigmoid/o: sigmoid

-scope: instrument used for examining


splenomegaly


Enlargement of the spleen.


stomatitis


Inflammation of the mouth.
stomat: mouth


sublingual


Pertaining to below the tongue.

lingu: tongue


ulcer


Open lesion or sore of the epidermis or mucous membrane.


ulcerative colitis


Disease that causes inflammation and ulcers in the lining of the large intestine.


vermiform


Shaped like a worm.
verm/i: worm
-form: shape


volvulus


Twisting of the bowel on itself that causes an obstruction.
volvul: to roll
-us: to pertaining to


vomit


To eject stomach contents through the mouth