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MED-FinalExam
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Fibrous layer of clear tissue that extends over the anterior portion of the eye and is continuous with the white of the eye


Cornea



Yellowish region in the retina; contains the fovea centralis


macula lutea



Snail shaped object in the ear


cochlea



Channel between the middle ear and the nasopharynx


Eustachian tube



Fluid contained in the inner ear part of the ear


perilymph



Maze like series of canals of the inner ear


labyrinth



Eye inflammation commonly known as pink eye


conjunctivitis



What is presbyopia


impairment of vision due to old age



What is myopia


nearsightedness



A defective curvature of the cornea or lens


astigmatism



Bacterial infection of the middle ear


suppurative otitis media



Nerve deafness occurring with aging


presbycusis



Fungal infection of the ear


otomycosis



Clouding of the lens causing decreased vision


cataract



Abnormal deviations of the eye


strabismus



Localized infection of a sebaceous gland in the eyelid


hordeolum (stye)



Increase intraocular pressure results in retinal and optic nerve damage


glaucoma



Collection of skin cells and cholesterol in a sac within the middle ear


cholesteatoma



Sensation of noises (ringing, buzzing, whistling) in the ears


tinnitus



Sensation of irregular or whirling motion wither of oneself or of external objects


vertigo



Surgical repair of the eardrum


tympanoplasty



The middle layer of the skin is


dermis



Structural protein found in the skin and connective tissue


collagen



What does Xer/o mean


dry



Combining form meaning skin


cutane/o



What does subungual mean


pertaining to under a nail



Black pigment found in the epidermis


melanin



Oily substance secreted by the sebaceous gland


sebum



Absence of pigment in the skin


albinism



Inflammation of the soft tissue around a nail


paronychia


What is diaphoresis


profuse sweating


What is the medical term for Fungal infection


trichomycosis


A collection of skin cells and cholesterol in a sac within the ear, is known as


cholesteatoma


What is a small abcess


Pustule



What is puritus


itching



A thickened scar


keyloid


Inflammatory disease of the joints and collagen of the skin; can affect other organs of the body


systemic lupus erythematosus


A bed sore; break in continuity of skin


decubitus ulcer



Chronic recurrent dermatosis with silvery grey scales covering red patches of skin


psoriasis



Connective tissue in the skin that hardens


scleroderma


Layers of growth are removed and examined microscopically


Moh’s surgery



Spongy porous bone tissue


cancellous bone



Outward extension of shoulder bone


Acromion



Opening in a bone


foramen


What is mastoid process


projection of the temporal bone


What is a condyle


knuckle like process at end of bone


What is diaphysis


shaft of a long bone


What is scapula


the shoulder bone



The smaller of the two lower leg bones


fibula



Fluid found within the joint is called


synovial fluid



Smooth cartilage that surround surface of bones is called


articular cartilage


Turning the palm forward is known as


supination



What is Osteodystrophy


poor formation of bone



What is Spondylolisthesis


sublexation of a vertebrae



What is a laminectomy


operation performed to relieve symptoms of slipped disc



A lateral curvature of the spinal column


scoliosis



Osteomalacia means


softening of a bone



Osteomyelitis means


inflammation of bone and bone marrow



A comminuted fracture is


splintered or crushed bone



A surgical repair of a joint


arthroplasty



What does ankylosis mean


condition of stiff bent joint


Inflammation of joints caused by excessive uric acid accumulation


gouty arthritis



Malignant tumor of smooth muscle


leiomyosarcoma



Wasting away of muscle


atrophy


Chronic joint disease with inflamed and painful joints; marked by swollen and thickened synovial membranes


rheumatoid arthritis



What is lymphopoiesis


formation of lymph



What is found in the spaces between cells and becomes lymph when it enters lymph capillaries


interstitial fluid



What are lymphocytes, monocytes,phagocytes, and antibodies part of


the immune system



Helper or suppressor cells are


Types of T cells



What are IgA, IgG, and IgE


immunoglobulins



Oropharyngeal lymph tissue are


the tonsils



The organ that is the producer of Mediastinal T cells, is known as


the thymus


What are adenoids


nasopharyngeal lymph tissue


Adominal organ that filters erythrocytes and activates lymphocytes


the spleen



Produces lymphocytes and monocytes, and all other blood cells


bone marrow



What is lymphocytosis


slight increase in number of lymphocytes


What is toxic mean (in medical terms)


pertaining to poison



What is a lymphangiogram


an x-ray record after injecting dye into lymph vessels



HIV is referred to as


the virus that causes AIDS



Malignant tumor of the lymph nodes, is known as what disease


Hodgkin disease


A viral infection causing blisters on skin of lips, nose or genitalia


herpes simplex



Cancer arising from the lining of capillaries, producing blueish-red skin nodules


Kaposi sarcoma



What is toxoplasmosis


parasitic (protozoan) infection associated with AIDS. Produces pneumonitis, hepatitis, and encephalitis



What is Cryptococcus, and what disease is it associated with


a fungal infection associated with AIDS, involves brain and meninges, lungs and skin


What is atopy


a hypersensitivity or allergic state


What does anaphylaxsis mean


an extraordinary hypersensitivity to a foreign protein



What is an erythrocyte


a red blood cell



What type of cells come from bone marrow


stem cells


What is a lymphocyte


a leukocyte formed in lymph tissue; and produces antibodies


What is eosinophil


leukocyte with dense, reddish granules, associated with allergic reaction


What is neutrophil


leukocyte (poly) formed in bone marrow and having neautral-staining granules


What is fibrin


protein threads that form the basis of a clot



What is electrophoresis


method of separating out plasma proteins by electrical charge


What are antigens


foreign material that invades the body



What is bilirubin


pigment produced from hemoglobin when red blood cells are destroyed



What do you call an undifferentiated blood cell


stem cell



What is the anticoagulant found in blood


heparin



What is poikilocytosis


a disorder of red blood cell morphology


What is a reticulocyte


an immature red blood cell


What is myeloid


derived from bone marrow



sideropenia occurs causing deficient production of hemoglobin, due to


iron deficiency



What is aplastic anemia


failure of red blood cell production due to absence of formation of cells in the bone marrow


What is thalassemia


an inherited defect in ability to produce hemoglobin


What is pernicious anemia


a lack of mature red cells due to inability to absorb vitamin B12 into the body


Abnormal numbers of relatively mature lymphocytes predominant in the marrow, lymph nodes, and spleen, is known as what disease


chronic lymphocytic leukemia


Excessive bleeding caused by congenital lack of factor VIII


hemophilia



The mediastinum is located


between the lungs in the chest



Phren/o means


diaphragm



Where is the apex located


in the uppermost region of the lung



What are the bronchi


tubes that bifurcate the windpipe



The valve positioned between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery, is known as


pulmonary valve


What is the larynx


the voicebox



What does hypercapnia mean


high carbon dioxide in the blood



Where is the hilum located


middle region where the bronchi, blood vessels and nerves enter and exit the lungs


What are the lobes


divisions of the lungs



What does hypoxemia mean


condition of decreased oxygen in the blood



A type of pneumoconiosis


asbestosis



What is orthopnea mean


breathing easier in an upright position


What does pyothorax mean


collection of pus in the pleural cavity



The “P” in DPT stands for


pertussis



Stridor occurs in what upper respiratory disorder


croup



What does dyspnea mean


difficult breathing



What is asthma


bronchial airway obstruction marked by paroxysmal dyspnea, wheezing and cough


What does atelectasis mean


collapsed lung


Material that is expelled from the lungs


expectoration


What is a pulmonary abscess


localized area of pus formation in the lungs


Spitting up blood from the lungs is known as


hemoptysis



What is it called when a tube is placed through mouth to trachea to establish an airway


endotracheal intubation



PPD is what kind of test


tuberculin test



What is COPD


airway obstruction associated with emphysema and chronic bronchitis


A blood vessel that carries oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs


pulmonary artery



What do you call the Contraction phase of the heartbeat


systole



Where is the mitral valve located


between the left upper and lower chamber of the heart



A saclike membrane that surrounds the heart


pericardium



Sensitive tissue in the right atrium wall that begins the heartbeat


sinoatrial node



Blood vessels branching from the aorta to carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle


coronary artery



Disease of the heart muscle


cardiomyopathy


Inflammation of a vein


phlebitis


An aneurysm is


a local widening of an artery



blueish coloration of the skin


cyanosis



What is it called when chest pain is relieved with nitroglycerin


Angina Pectoris


What does Petechiae mean


small pinpoint hemorrhages


What is Tetralogy of Fallot


four separate congenital heart defects



What does Patent mean


open



What is fibrillation


cardiac arrhythmia



The cause of essential hypertension is known as


idiopathic


What is a drug used to strengthen the heartbeat


digitalis



A mitral valve prolapse is known as


click-murmur syndrome


What is endarterectomy


removal of plaque from an artery



What is a Holter monitor


EKG taken during daily activity



What is the sinoatrial node


the pacemaker of the heart



What is CHF (Congestive Heart Failure)


inability of the heart to pump its required amount of blood



A rapid but regular atrial and ventricular contractions is known as


a flutter



A congenital narrowing of large artery leading from the heart is known as


coarctation of the aorta


Short episodes of pallor and numbness in fingers and toes due to temporary constriction of arterioles,is known as


Raynaud syndrome


What is spread of malignant tumors to a distant location


Metastasis



Solid tumor derived from epithelial tissue


adenocarcinoma of the lung


Mushrooming pattern of growth as tumor cells pile on top of each other


Fungating tumor



Sessile and pedunculated types of growths, this is known as a


polypoid


Localized tumor growth is called


carcinoma in situ


A Scirrhous tumor is


hard, densely packed tumor cells


Staging of tumors is done by


assessing the degree of tumor spread



Mutagenic means


producing a change in the DNA of a cell



Mutation means


an inheritable change in a cell


Genetic material that causes cancer


oncogenes



What is the wide resection of tumor and removal of surrounding tissue


Exenteration


What is a tumor that requires large doses of radiation to produce death of cells


Radioresistant tumor



The return of symptoms of disease is known as


Relapse



A wide surgical incision of the abdomen to detect disease, this procedure is known as


staging laparotomy


Destruction of tissue by electric sparks is known as


Fulguration



Known type of inherited cancer


retinoblastoma



Malignant tumor of fibrous tissue


fibrosarcoma



T1N2M0 stands for


tumor is present with palpable regional lymph nodes and no metastases


Apoptosis means


Programmed cell death


Specialization of cells, this is known as


differentiation


A new growth; tumor


Neoplasm



A substance that produces cancer


Carcinogen



Cancerous tumor derived from bone, this is known as


osteogenic sarcoma


What is a treatment that will relieve, but not cure, known as


palliative


What absorbs most of the x-rays it is exposed to


Radiopaque substance


A barium enema is


metallic powder is introduced into large intestine and x-rays are taken



What is a x-ray of the renal pelvis and urinary tract after injecting dye into a vein


IVP



An x-ray of the spinal cord is known as a


myelogram



An x-ray of a joint is known as


Arthrogram



A CT scan uses


ionizing x-rays and a computer to produce a transverse image of the body organs



Sagittal, frontal, and cross sectional images are produced using magnetic and radio waves


An MRI



X-ray view in which patient is upright with back to the x-ray machine and the film to the chest


PA view



A Substance that gives off high energy particles or rays


radioisotope



Test in which radiopharmaceutical is injected intravenously and traced within the vessels of the lung, this procedure is called


perfusion study of the lung


An in vivo test is where


Experiments are performed in a living organism



What is radiation therapy using an implanted radioisotope source


Brachytherapy



Radiosensitive organs or tissues are


organs or tissues susceptible to the effects of radiation


changes in the skin, redness, is known as


Erythema



Alopecia means


hair loss



Abnormal growth of connective tissue is known as


fibrosis


Myelosuppression is


Hypoplasia of bone marrow


What does mucositis mean


inflammation of the inner lining of an organ



radioactive elements inserted directly into a tumor, is known as


Interstitial therapy


X-ray pictures are taken circularly around an area of the body and a computer synthesizes the information into a composite axial picture


CT scan


Therapeutic procedures are performed by a radiologist under the guidance of fluoroscopy or ultrasound


interventional radiology


Radiopaque substances are given and x-rays are taken, this is known as


contrast studies


A Series of x-rays are taken at different depths of an organ


tomography



X-ray beams are focused from the body onto a screen that glows as a result of the ionizing effect of x-rays, this is known as


fluoroscopy


A magnetic field and radio waves are used to form images of the body


An MRI


The combination of two drugs can cause an effect that is greater than the sum of the individual effects of each, this is known as


synergisim



Suppositories are administered via this route


rectal



Drugs applied to the skin, is known as


topical drugs



Anaphylaxis is


A type of hypersensitivity reaction



Aerosols are administered via this route


inhalation



Drugs that block release of a substance that causes allergic reactions are known as


antihistamines



Morphine is what kind of drug


analgesic



Drugs that are swallowed and absorbed through the intestinal tract


oral drugs



Drugs injected through a syringe into a muscle, vein, or body cavity


parenteral drugs



A beta-blocker is what kind of drug


cardio vascular



Drugs used to treat epilepsy


anticonvulsants



Heparin is a


Anticoagulant



Drugs that produce loss of sensation throughout the body


anasthetics


A type of endocrine drug


estrogen



Drugs used to relieve pain, induce sleep, and suppress cough are known as


analgesics


Amphetamine and caffeine are known as


stimulants



A drug that lowers blood pressure by promoting fluid excretion from the kidney


diuretic



Drugs that relax without necessarily producing sleep, these are known as


sedatives


Penicillin is what kind of drug


antibiotic



Drugs that control anxiety and severe behavior disturbances, these are known as


tranquilizers



Drug administered under the tongue is known as


sublingual



Drug against itching


antipruritic



Drug that prevents nausea and vomiting


antiemetic



Drug that reduces fever is known as


antipyretic



Drug that opens airways is known as


bronchodilator



An unexpected effect produced in a sensitive individual, but not seen in most patients


idiosyncrasy


What does ECHO stand for


Echocardiography


What does COPD stand for


Chronic obstrucive pulmonary disease


What does ADH stand for


antidiuretic hormone


What does ACTH stand for


adrenocorticotropic hormone


A genetic disorder involving defective development of bones, this is known as


osteogenesis imperfecta


The thin, single, flat bone that forms the lower portion of the nasal septum. This is called


The Vomer


A bone that is partially broken, is known as what kind of fracture


Greenstick


The lower, narrow portion of the sternum is known as


xiphoid process








A condition without development of cartilage, this is known as


achondroplasia


What is fibrinogen


plasma protein that is converted to fibrin in the clotting process


A granulocytic leukocyte formed in bone marrow is known as


neutrophil


Reduction in red cells due to excessive destruction is known as


hemolytic anemia


What does dysphonia mean


hoarseness or other voice impairment


A passageway between the aorta and the pulmonary artery remains open after birth, this is known as


patent ductus arteriosus


If the combination of two similar drugs is equal to the sum of the effects of each, this is called


additive action


A large electronic device that produces high energy x-ray beams for the treatment of deep-seated tumors, this is known as


linear accelerator


The sensitive auditory receptor area found in the choclea, is known as


organ of corti


The auditory meatus is known as


the auditory canal


Passages in the inner ear associated with maintaining equilibrium, is known as


semicircular canal


The flap of the ear is called


auricle


What does the Utricle located in the labyrinth of the ear help do


help maintain equilibrium


What does Xanth/o mean


yellow


Infection of the skin caused by a fungus, is known as


tinea


Inflammation of sweat glands is termed


hidradentitis


A round depression, or socket, in the pelvis that joins the femur is called


acetabulum














Slit lamp microscopy is a procedure where


an examination of the eyes are examined by a Opthmalogist


A fluorescein angiography is a procedure where


an intravenous injection of fluorescein (a dye) followed by serial photographs of the retina


What does Lordosis mean


condition of irregular curvature


What does AD stand for, in terms of the ear


right ear


What does AS stand for in terms of the ear


left ear


Scrapings from skin lesions, hair specimens, or nail cliplings are used for what kind of test


fungal test


Several scratches are made to the skin and a very minute amount of test material is inserted in the scratches, what kind of test is this


scratch test


How is glaucoma diagnosed


tonometry


A condition that produces a buffalo hump appearence


Cushing syndrome


What does hemothroax mean


blood in the pleural cavity


Relaxiontion phase of the heart is known as


diastole


What does hematemesis mean


vomiting blood


What does tachypena mean


excessivly rapid and shallow breathing


What does humeral mean


pertaining to the humerous


What does tibual mean


pertaining to the tibia


What does radial mean


pertaining to the radius


What does ulnar mean


pertaining to the ulna


Visual examination of a joint with an arthroscope is known as


arthroscopy


What does lymphadenitis


inflammation of the lymph node (gland)


What does lymphoid mean


resembling or derived from lymph


What does fasciectomy


removal of the fascia


What does bronchiolitis mean


inflammation of the brochials


Accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity, is known as


hemothorax


Improper closure of the mitrial valve is known as


mitral valve prolapse (MVP)


What is a bulla


a large vesicle (blister)


A noninfectious inflammation with accumulation of serous fluid, in the ear, is known as


serous otitis media