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Fibrous layer of clear tissue that extends over the anterior portion of the eye and is continuous with the white of the eye


Yellowish region in the retina; contains the fovea centralis

macula lutea

Snail shaped object in the ear


Channel between the middle ear and the nasopharynx

Eustachian tube

Fluid contained in the inner ear part of the ear


Maze like series of canals of the inner ear


Eye inflammation commonly known as pink eye


What is presbyopia

impairment of vision due to old age

What is myopia


A defective curvature of the cornea or lens


Bacterial infection of the middle ear

suppurative otitis media

Nerve deafness occurring with aging


Fungal infection of the ear


Clouding of the lens causing decreased vision


Abnormal deviations of the eye


Localized infection of a sebaceous gland in the eyelid

hordeolum (stye)

Increase intraocular pressure results in retinal and optic nerve damage


Collection of skin cells and cholesterol in a sac within the middle ear


Sensation of noises (ringing, buzzing, whistling) in the ears


Sensation of irregular or whirling motion wither of oneself or of external objects


Surgical repair of the eardrum


The middle layer of the skin is


Structural protein found in the skin and connective tissue


What does Xer/o mean


Combining form meaning skin


What does subungual mean

pertaining to under a nail

Black pigment found in the epidermis


Oily substance secreted by the sebaceous gland


Absence of pigment in the skin


Inflammation of the soft tissue around a nail


What is diaphoresis

profuse sweating

What is the medical term for Fungal infection


A collection of skin cells and cholesterol in a sac within the ear, is known as


What is a small abcess


What is puritus


A thickened scar


Inflammatory disease of the joints and collagen of the skin; can affect other organs of the body

systemic lupus erythematosus

A bed sore; break in continuity of skin

decubitus ulcer

Chronic recurrent dermatosis with silvery grey scales covering red patches of skin


Connective tissue in the skin that hardens


Layers of growth are removed and examined microscopically

Moh’s surgery

Spongy porous bone tissue

cancellous bone

Outward extension of shoulder bone


Opening in a bone


What is mastoid process

projection of the temporal bone

What is a condyle

knuckle like process at end of bone

What is diaphysis

shaft of a long bone

What is scapula

the shoulder bone

The smaller of the two lower leg bones


Fluid found within the joint is called

synovial fluid

Smooth cartilage that surround surface of bones is called

articular cartilage

Turning the palm forward is known as


What is Osteodystrophy

poor formation of bone

What is Spondylolisthesis

sublexation of a vertebrae

What is a laminectomy

operation performed to relieve symptoms of slipped disc

A lateral curvature of the spinal column


Osteomalacia means

softening of a bone

Osteomyelitis means

inflammation of bone and bone marrow

A comminuted fracture is

splintered or crushed bone

A surgical repair of a joint


What does ankylosis mean

condition of stiff bent joint

Inflammation of joints caused by excessive uric acid accumulation

gouty arthritis

Malignant tumor of smooth muscle


Wasting away of muscle


Chronic joint disease with inflamed and painful joints; marked by swollen and thickened synovial membranes

rheumatoid arthritis

What is lymphopoiesis

formation of lymph

What is found in the spaces between cells and becomes lymph when it enters lymph capillaries

interstitial fluid

What are lymphocytes, monocytes,phagocytes, and antibodies part of

the immune system

Helper or suppressor cells are

Types of T cells

What are IgA, IgG, and IgE


Oropharyngeal lymph tissue are

the tonsils

The organ that is the producer of Mediastinal T cells, is known as

the thymus

What are adenoids

nasopharyngeal lymph tissue

Adominal organ that filters erythrocytes and activates lymphocytes

the spleen

Produces lymphocytes and monocytes, and all other blood cells

bone marrow

What is lymphocytosis

slight increase in number of lymphocytes

What is toxic mean (in medical terms)

pertaining to poison

What is a lymphangiogram

an x-ray record after injecting dye into lymph vessels

HIV is referred to as

the virus that causes AIDS

Malignant tumor of the lymph nodes, is known as what disease

Hodgkin disease

A viral infection causing blisters on skin of lips, nose or genitalia

herpes simplex

Cancer arising from the lining of capillaries, producing blueish-red skin nodules

Kaposi sarcoma

What is toxoplasmosis

parasitic (protozoan) infection associated with AIDS. Produces pneumonitis, hepatitis, and encephalitis

What is Cryptococcus, and what disease is it associated with

a fungal infection associated with AIDS, involves brain and meninges, lungs and skin

What is atopy

a hypersensitivity or allergic state

What does anaphylaxsis mean

an extraordinary hypersensitivity to a foreign protein

What is an erythrocyte

a red blood cell

What type of cells come from bone marrow

stem cells

What is a lymphocyte

a leukocyte formed in lymph tissue; and produces antibodies

What is eosinophil

leukocyte with dense, reddish granules, associated with allergic reaction

What is neutrophil

leukocyte (poly) formed in bone marrow and having neautral-staining granules

What is fibrin

protein threads that form the basis of a clot

What is electrophoresis

method of separating out plasma proteins by electrical charge

What are antigens

foreign material that invades the body

What is bilirubin

pigment produced from hemoglobin when red blood cells are destroyed

What do you call an undifferentiated blood cell

stem cell

What is the anticoagulant found in blood


What is poikilocytosis

a disorder of red blood cell morphology

What is a reticulocyte

an immature red blood cell

What is myeloid

derived from bone marrow

sideropenia occurs causing deficient production of hemoglobin, due to

iron deficiency

What is aplastic anemia

failure of red blood cell production due to absence of formation of cells in the bone marrow

What is thalassemia

an inherited defect in ability to produce hemoglobin

What is pernicious anemia

a lack of mature red cells due to inability to absorb vitamin B12 into the body

Abnormal numbers of relatively mature lymphocytes predominant in the marrow, lymph nodes, and spleen, is known as what disease

chronic lymphocytic leukemia

Excessive bleeding caused by congenital lack of factor VIII


The mediastinum is located

between the lungs in the chest

Phren/o means


Where is the apex located

in the uppermost region of the lung

What are the bronchi

tubes that bifurcate the windpipe

The valve positioned between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery, is known as

pulmonary valve

What is the larynx

the voicebox

What does hypercapnia mean

high carbon dioxide in the blood

Where is the hilum located

middle region where the bronchi, blood vessels and nerves enter and exit the lungs

What are the lobes

divisions of the lungs

What does hypoxemia mean

condition of decreased oxygen in the blood

A type of pneumoconiosis


What is orthopnea mean

breathing easier in an upright position

What does pyothorax mean

collection of pus in the pleural cavity

The “P” in DPT stands for


Stridor occurs in what upper respiratory disorder


What does dyspnea mean

difficult breathing

What is asthma

bronchial airway obstruction marked by paroxysmal dyspnea, wheezing and cough

What does atelectasis mean

collapsed lung

Material that is expelled from the lungs


What is a pulmonary abscess

localized area of pus formation in the lungs

Spitting up blood from the lungs is known as


What is it called when a tube is placed through mouth to trachea to establish an airway

endotracheal intubation

PPD is what kind of test

tuberculin test

What is COPD

airway obstruction associated with emphysema and chronic bronchitis

A blood vessel that carries oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs

pulmonary artery

What do you call the Contraction phase of the heartbeat


Where is the mitral valve located

between the left upper and lower chamber of the heart

A saclike membrane that surrounds the heart


Sensitive tissue in the right atrium wall that begins the heartbeat

sinoatrial node

Blood vessels branching from the aorta to carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle

coronary artery

Disease of the heart muscle


Inflammation of a vein


An aneurysm is

a local widening of an artery

blueish coloration of the skin


What is it called when chest pain is relieved with nitroglycerin

Angina Pectoris

What does Petechiae mean

small pinpoint hemorrhages

What is Tetralogy of Fallot

four separate congenital heart defects

What does Patent mean


What is fibrillation

cardiac arrhythmia

The cause of essential hypertension is known as


What is a drug used to strengthen the heartbeat


A mitral valve prolapse is known as

click-murmur syndrome

What is endarterectomy

removal of plaque from an artery

What is a Holter monitor

EKG taken during daily activity

What is the sinoatrial node

the pacemaker of the heart

What is CHF (Congestive Heart Failure)

inability of the heart to pump its required amount of blood

A rapid but regular atrial and ventricular contractions is known as

a flutter

A congenital narrowing of large artery leading from the heart is known as

coarctation of the aorta

Short episodes of pallor and numbness in fingers and toes due to temporary constriction of arterioles,is known as

Raynaud syndrome

What is spread of malignant tumors to a distant location


Solid tumor derived from epithelial tissue

adenocarcinoma of the lung

Mushrooming pattern of growth as tumor cells pile on top of each other

Fungating tumor

Sessile and pedunculated types of growths, this is known as a


Localized tumor growth is called

carcinoma in situ

A Scirrhous tumor is

hard, densely packed tumor cells

Staging of tumors is done by

assessing the degree of tumor spread

Mutagenic means

producing a change in the DNA of a cell

Mutation means

an inheritable change in a cell

Genetic material that causes cancer


What is the wide resection of tumor and removal of surrounding tissue


What is a tumor that requires large doses of radiation to produce death of cells

Radioresistant tumor

The return of symptoms of disease is known as


A wide surgical incision of the abdomen to detect disease, this procedure is known as

staging laparotomy

Destruction of tissue by electric sparks is known as


Known type of inherited cancer


Malignant tumor of fibrous tissue


T1N2M0 stands for

tumor is present with palpable regional lymph nodes and no metastases

Apoptosis means

Programmed cell death

Specialization of cells, this is known as


A new growth; tumor


A substance that produces cancer


Cancerous tumor derived from bone, this is known as

osteogenic sarcoma

What is a treatment that will relieve, but not cure, known as


What absorbs most of the x-rays it is exposed to

Radiopaque substance

A barium enema is

metallic powder is introduced into large intestine and x-rays are taken

What is a x-ray of the renal pelvis and urinary tract after injecting dye into a vein


An x-ray of the spinal cord is known as a


An x-ray of a joint is known as


A CT scan uses

ionizing x-rays and a computer to produce a transverse image of the body organs

Sagittal, frontal, and cross sectional images are produced using magnetic and radio waves


X-ray view in which patient is upright with back to the x-ray machine and the film to the chest

PA view

A Substance that gives off high energy particles or rays


Test in which radiopharmaceutical is injected intravenously and traced within the vessels of the lung, this procedure is called

perfusion study of the lung

An in vivo test is where

Experiments are performed in a living organism

What is radiation therapy using an implanted radioisotope source


Radiosensitive organs or tissues are

organs or tissues susceptible to the effects of radiation

changes in the skin, redness, is known as


Alopecia means

hair loss

Abnormal growth of connective tissue is known as


Myelosuppression is

Hypoplasia of bone marrow

What does mucositis mean

inflammation of the inner lining of an organ

radioactive elements inserted directly into a tumor, is known as

Interstitial therapy

X-ray pictures are taken circularly around an area of the body and a computer synthesizes the information into a composite axial picture

CT scan

Therapeutic procedures are performed by a radiologist under the guidance of fluoroscopy or ultrasound

interventional radiology

Radiopaque substances are given and x-rays are taken, this is known as

contrast studies

A Series of x-rays are taken at different depths of an organ


X-ray beams are focused from the body onto a screen that glows as a result of the ionizing effect of x-rays, this is known as


A magnetic field and radio waves are used to form images of the body


The combination of two drugs can cause an effect that is greater than the sum of the individual effects of each, this is known as


Suppositories are administered via this route


Drugs applied to the skin, is known as

topical drugs

Anaphylaxis is

A type of hypersensitivity reaction

Aerosols are administered via this route


Drugs that block release of a substance that causes allergic reactions are known as


Morphine is what kind of drug


Drugs that are swallowed and absorbed through the intestinal tract

oral drugs

Drugs injected through a syringe into a muscle, vein, or body cavity

parenteral drugs

A beta-blocker is what kind of drug

cardio vascular

Drugs used to treat epilepsy


Heparin is a


Drugs that produce loss of sensation throughout the body


A type of endocrine drug


Drugs used to relieve pain, induce sleep, and suppress cough are known as


Amphetamine and caffeine are known as


A drug that lowers blood pressure by promoting fluid excretion from the kidney


Drugs that relax without necessarily producing sleep, these are known as


Penicillin is what kind of drug


Drugs that control anxiety and severe behavior disturbances, these are known as


Drug administered under the tongue is known as


Drug against itching


Drug that prevents nausea and vomiting


Drug that reduces fever is known as


Drug that opens airways is known as


An unexpected effect produced in a sensitive individual, but not seen in most patients


What does ECHO stand for


What does COPD stand for

Chronic obstrucive pulmonary disease

What does ADH stand for

antidiuretic hormone

What does ACTH stand for

adrenocorticotropic hormone

A genetic disorder involving defective development of bones, this is known as

osteogenesis imperfecta

The thin, single, flat bone that forms the lower portion of the nasal septum. This is called

The Vomer

A bone that is partially broken, is known as what kind of fracture


The lower, narrow portion of the sternum is known as

xiphoid process

A condition without development of cartilage, this is known as


What is fibrinogen

plasma protein that is converted to fibrin in the clotting process

A granulocytic leukocyte formed in bone marrow is known as


Reduction in red cells due to excessive destruction is known as

hemolytic anemia

What does dysphonia mean

hoarseness or other voice impairment

A passageway between the aorta and the pulmonary artery remains open after birth, this is known as

patent ductus arteriosus

If the combination of two similar drugs is equal to the sum of the effects of each, this is called

additive action

A large electronic device that produces high energy x-ray beams for the treatment of deep-seated tumors, this is known as

linear accelerator

The sensitive auditory receptor area found in the choclea, is known as

organ of corti

The auditory meatus is known as

the auditory canal

Passages in the inner ear associated with maintaining equilibrium, is known as

semicircular canal

The flap of the ear is called


What does the Utricle located in the labyrinth of the ear help do

help maintain equilibrium

What does Xanth/o mean


Infection of the skin caused by a fungus, is known as


Inflammation of sweat glands is termed


A round depression, or socket, in the pelvis that joins the femur is called


Slit lamp microscopy is a procedure where

an examination of the eyes are examined by a Opthmalogist

A fluorescein angiography is a procedure where

an intravenous injection of fluorescein (a dye) followed by serial photographs of the retina

What does Lordosis mean

condition of irregular curvature

What does AD stand for, in terms of the ear

right ear

What does AS stand for in terms of the ear

left ear

Scrapings from skin lesions, hair specimens, or nail cliplings are used for what kind of test

fungal test

Several scratches are made to the skin and a very minute amount of test material is inserted in the scratches, what kind of test is this

scratch test

How is glaucoma diagnosed


A condition that produces a buffalo hump appearence

Cushing syndrome

What does hemothroax mean

blood in the pleural cavity

Relaxiontion phase of the heart is known as


What does hematemesis mean

vomiting blood

What does tachypena mean

excessivly rapid and shallow breathing

What does humeral mean

pertaining to the humerous

What does tibual mean

pertaining to the tibia

What does radial mean

pertaining to the radius

What does ulnar mean

pertaining to the ulna

Visual examination of a joint with an arthroscope is known as


What does lymphadenitis

inflammation of the lymph node (gland)

What does lymphoid mean

resembling or derived from lymph

What does fasciectomy

removal of the fascia

What does bronchiolitis mean

inflammation of the brochials

Accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity, is known as


Improper closure of the mitrial valve is known as

mitral valve prolapse (MVP)

What is a bulla

a large vesicle (blister)

A noninfectious inflammation with accumulation of serous fluid, in the ear, is known as

serous otitis media